biol 101 chp 53: population ecology

Download BIOL 101 Chp 53: Population Ecology

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This is a lecture presentation for my BIOL 101 General Biology I students on Chapter 53: Population Ecology. (Campbell Biology, 10th Ed. by Reece et al). Rob Swatski, Associate Professor of Biology, Harrisburg Area Community College - York Campus, York, PA. Email: rjswatsk@hacc.edu Please visit my website for more anatomy and biology learning resources: http://robswatski.virb.com/

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  • 1.Chapter 53 PopulationEcologyBIOL 101: General Biology I Rob SwatskiAssistant Professor of Biology HACC - York 1

2. PopulationDynamicsPopulation DensityDispersionEmigration Immigration 2 3. PopulationSizeEstimationsExtrapolation(indirect) Index of population size (direct) Mark-and- recapture 3 4. 4 5. Deaths BirthsImmigrationEmigration5 6. DispersionClumpedUniformRandom 6 7. Clumped Dispersion7Why? 8. Uniform Dispersion8Why? 9. Random Dispersion9 Why? 10. Type of Dispersion?10 11. Type of Dispersion?11 12. Type of Dispersion?12 13. DemographicsDemographyBirth &Death rates Life tableCohort13 14. Life Table 14 15. 15 16. 16 17. Survivorship Curve1,000Number of survivors (log scale) 100Females 10Males10 2 468 1017Age (years) = constant death rate 18. Number of Survivors (log scale)1,000 I 100II 10 III10 50 100Percentage of Maximum Lifespan 18 19. LifeHistory Age atmaturityReproductiverate# of offspringper repro cycle 19 20. 20 21. Evolution & Life History DiversitySemelparity IteroparitySpecies SpeciesBig-bangRepeated reproduce reproducereproductionreproduction once & diemany times21 22. What kinds of environments favor these two types ofreproduction? 22 23. KestrelRESULTSParents surviving the following winter (%) 100 Male Female80604020 0 ReducedNormalEnlargedbrood size brood sizebrood size(3-4 chicks)(5-6 chicks) (7-8 chicks) 23 24. Dandelion24 Coconut palm 25. Exponential Population Growth 8,000Elephant Population 6,000 4,000 2,000019001920 19401960 1980Idealized environment Year 25 26. J-curve2,000ExponentialgrowthPopulation Size (N)1,500Carrying capacityK = 1,500 S-curve Logistic growth1,000 5000051015 Number of Generations 26 27. 1,000Number of Paramecium/mL8006004002000A05 1015ParameciumTime (days)Population in the Lab27 28. overshootNumber of Daphnia/50 mL180150120 90 60 3000 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Time (days)A Daphnia Population in the Lab 28 29. Types of Selectionr-selectionK-selectiondensity-independent density-dependent29 30. 30 31. 31 32. 32 33. 33 34. 34 35. 35 36. 36 37. 37 38. 38 39. Density-Independent PopulationsBR and DR do not change with population density39 40. 40 41. 41 42. Density-DependentPopulationsAs population density increasesBR decreasesDR increases42 43. Density-Dependent FactorsCrowding Disease Competition TerritorialityPredation43 44. 44 45. Gannets 45 46. 2,100 1,900 1,700 Number of Sheep 1,500 1,300 1,100900700500 0 1955 1965 1975 19851995 2005 YearPopulation Dynamics 46 47. 50 2,500WolvesMooseNumber of WolvesNumber of Moose 40 2,000 30 1,500 20 1,000 10 5000 01955 1965 197519851995 2005 Year47 48. Snowshoe Hare & Lynx 48 49. Boom-and-Bust Cycles Snowshoe hare160Number of HaresNumber of Lynx (thousands)(thousands)1209Lynx 806 40 30 018501875 19001925 Year 49 50. Creditsby Rob Swatski, 2010 Visit my website for more Anatomy study resources!http://robswatskibiology.wetpaint.comhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/rswatskiPlease send your comments and feedback to: rjswatsk@hacc.eduImages used in this work bear a This work bears an Creative Commons license andAttribution-Noncommercial are attributed to their originalShare Alike Creativeauthors.Commons license. 50