Biogas Production (Pretreatment Methods in Anaerobic Digestion) || Index

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  • Index

    (l->3,1->4)- -D-glucans, 32 4-O-methyl-oc-D-

    glucopyranosyluronic acid, 34

    Absorbers, 144,151 Abstract, 1, 55 Accessibility, 42 Acclimatisation, 238, 249 Acetogenesis, 93, 94, 95,166-168,

    170, 292, 294,297, 298,299, 300,301,302,305

    Acidic pretreatment, 48 Acidification, 239 Acidogenesis, 166-168,170,

    249, 252 Acidogenic bacteria, 292,300,305 Acid-shock pretreatment, 291, 294,

    295,297, 298,299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304

    Acknowledgements, 20 Acoustic, 92,93,101,102,103,104,

    104,105,106,109,110, 111, 112,113,114,116,117,118, 121,123,126

    Activated sludge, 139 Advanced Oxidation Processes,

    AOP, 114,116 Aerobic microbes, 49 Agglomeration, 139 Aggregation, 46 Alkaline pretreatment, 48 Alkaline-shock pretreatment, 291,

    294, 297, 298,299

    Alternative (Novel) Peroxidants, 208

    Amorphous, 30 Anaerobes, 49 Anaerobic, 137, 217, 218

    Digestion, 217, 218 Anaerobic consortia, 292,297 Anaerobic digestion, 91, 92, 93, 94,

    95,96,97,98,99,116,117, 120,121,124,125,129,132, 233-243, 247, 266

    acetoclatstic pathway, 167-169 acetogenesis, 166-168,170 acidogenesis, 166-168,170 biological process, 166-169 hydrogenotrophic pathway,

    167-169 hydrolysis, 166-168 methanogenesis, 166-170 microorganisms, 165-169 technical process, 169-170

    Anaerobic Digestion Pretreatments of Substrates, 3

    Angiosperms, 32 Application as Pretreatment for

    Anaerobic Digestion, 212 Ash, 240, 248 Atomic force microscope

    (afm), 268 Autolysis, 139

    Bacilli, 304 Bacillus sp, 304

    313

    Ackmez Mudhoo (ed.) Biogas Production, (313-320) Scrivener Publishing LLC

  • 314 INDEX

    Bacteria, 94,95,98,113,117,118, 120,121,124,129,130, 238, 250, 252,257

    BESA pretreatment, 291,296,298, 299, 301, 307,304

    Biocatalyst, 291,292,293,294,295, 297,299,301,303,305

    Biodegradable, 218,233 Biodiversity, 231 Bio-energy, 230-231, 233-234 Biofuel, 230,231,258 Biogas, 91, 93, 96, 99,112,116,124,

    125,126,131,132, 215-219, 222, 224, 225-227, 230, 233-236, 238, 240-244, 248-251,253,255-258

    Plant, 216,217,226 Biogas holder, 234,241-244,257 Biogas plant,

    cost-benefit analysis, 191-192 power consumption, 191 technical process, 169-170

    Biogas scrubbing, 236 Biohydrogen (H2), 291,305 Biohydrogen (H2) production,

    291,292 Biological degradation, 92,93, 97,

    131 Biological Pretreatment, 17 Biomass, 230,231,233,257 Biomass porosity, 47 Biomass recalcitrance, 28 Box-behnken design, 264 Bubbles, 92, 93,101,102,103,104,

    105,106,107,108,109,114, 116,117,118,120,121,122

    C / n ratio, 248,249 Calorific value, 234,248 Cattail, 260 Cavitation, 91,93,97,100,101,102,

    103,104,105,106,107,108, 109,110, 111, 114,116,117, 118,120,121,122,123,128, 130,131

    Cavity, 102,106,107,110 Cell wall proteins, 37 Cellobiose, 31 Cellulose, 161-163 Cellulose allomorphs, 43 Cellulose microfibril, 28 Cellulose synthase, 42 Cellulosome, 49 Chemical oxygen demand (cod),

    238-240, 248-249, 253-254,257

    Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD, 98,117,120,121,122, 125,129

    Chemical Pretreatment, 15 Chemical wastewater, 298,301,306 Chemical-shock pretreatment, 291,

    292, 305 Climate change, 231,233, 258 Clostridia, 303,304 Clostridium sp, 204,295,297,299,

    303,304 Co2 scrubbing, 236 Co-digestion, 216 Cohesin-dockerin, 49 Combined Heat and Power (CHP),

    216,217, 226 Combined Pretreatment, 18,301 Commercial WAO Processes, 204 Comminution, 48 Competitive growth, 294 Composting, 218 Compression, 100,101,102,105,108 Concluding Note, 19,84,212 Coniferyl alcohol, 38 Contact corridors, 50 Covalent interaction, 40 Cow dung, 237-239,247-248,

    254,257 Crystalline cellulose, 27 Crystallographic structure, 43

    Dark fermentation, 291,292,305 Decrystallization, 46 Degradation, 137,138

  • INDEX 315

    Degree of acetylation, 34 Degree of lignification, 31 Degree of polymerization, 31 Depolymerization, 42 Design, 234-236, 241,243-245,

    250-251,256 Dewatering, 92, 93, 96 D-galactopyranosyl, 33 Digestate, 252,257 Digester, 234-235,237-239,

    241-243, 252-253, 256-258 Digestibility, 47 Digestion, 139,141,147 Dipole rotation, 144 Disintegration, 139,141,147 Displacement tank, 234-235,

    241-244, 247, 257 Divalent cations, 139 Dome digester, 234 Drying, 46

    Economic, 230-231,234,247, 255-257

    Economic assessment of enzyme application,

    benefits, 179-186,191-192 cost-benefit analysis, 191-192

    Ecosystem, 231 Electricity, 215-217, 226, 227, 232,

    234, 258 Electromagnetic field, 143,144,147 Electromagnetic spectrum, 141 Elementary fibrils, 42 Elementary nanofibrils, 46 Emission, 230-231 Energy, 215-219, 222, 224,226,

    230-234, 248,251, 257-258 Envirornment, 231, 234 Enzymatic, 141,153 Enzyme,

    catalysis, 158-160 classification, 161 commercial products, 172-174,

    176-177,179-180 commission number, 167

    feedstock, 179-180 function, 160-163 isolation, 164 production, 164-166 source, 165-166 structure, 160 substrate, 158-159

    Enzyme application, aerobic and anaerobic

    conditions, 175 batch digestion tests, 172-173 biogas production, 178-182 commercial products, 172-174,

    176-177,179-180 continuous digestion tests,

    172-174 cost-benefit analysis, 191-192 digestate, 174-175 digester, 172-174 economic assessment, 191-192 enzyme concentration, 175-178 enzyme mixture, 186 influence of pretreatment, 190 influence of trace elements,

    190-191 inhibiton of enzyme activity,

    186-190 large-scale, 174,178 pH-value, 175-178 pre-digestion phase, 171-172 pre-hydrolytic phase, 170-171 silage treatment, 171 single enzyme, 186 site of enzyme application,

    170-175 temperature, 175-177 viscosity of digester content, 186

    Ester-ether crosslinks, 40 Extracellular, 139 Extracellular Polymeric Substances,

    EPS, 125,127,128

    Fatty acids, 166-168 Feedstock, 217-219

    crops, 169

  • 316 INDEX

    digestibility, 162-163 preatreatment, 190 silage, 169,171

    Feluric acid, 163 Fiber optic, 146 Firmicutes, 304,305 Fossil fuels, 230-231,257 Fractionation, 282 Freezing and thawing, 294,

    296,297 Frequencies, 141,143,146,155 Frequency, 118,119,120,123,124,

    125,126,127,128,129

    Galactoglucomannans, 35 Gas, 216,217, 222,224,225

    Natural gas, 224,225 Generalities, 199 Generalities and Working

    Mechanism, 210 Global warming, 230 Glucomannans, 35 Glucoronoarabinoxylans, 41 Glucuronoarabinoxylans, 34 Granules, 30 Gymnosperms, 32

    Heating, 46 Heating vale, 235-236,240 Heat-shock pretreatment, 291,294,

    295,297,298,299,300,301, 302, 303, 304

    Helical twist, 44 Hemicellulose, 162-162 Hemicelluloses, 31 Heteroglucans, 33 Heteromannans, 35 Heteropolysaccharides, 27 Heteroxylans, 34 Hmw-hdpe, 245 Homogalacturonans, 36 Homogeneous, 238, 247 Homogenization, 141 Horn, 100,105,115,123,125

    Hydraulic Retention Time, HRT, 97,124

    Hydrogen (H2), 291,292,305 Hydrogen Peroxide, 205 Hydrolysable fraction (rhf), 276 Hydrolysable fraction (shf), 276 Hydrolysis, 92,93,94,95,116,124,

    126,130,132,139,166-168, 247, 249, 252

    Hydrolytic enzymes, -glucosidases, 162-163,165,

    172,176,179 -xylosidases, 163 cellulases, 162-163,165-167,

    172-174,176-177,179-181, 188-189

    endocellulases, 162-163 exocellulases, 162-163 hemicellulases, 162-163,174 xylanases, 162-163,165,167,

    172-174,176,178-181, 188-189

    xyloglucanases, 163 Hydromechanical, 115,116,

    117,118 Hydrophobie filler, 40 Hydroxycinnamate, 40

    Inert fraction, 276 Infrared irradiation, 294 Inoculation process, 238 Inoculum, 238-239 Intensity, 93,102,103,108,109,113,

    108,109,113,117,118,120, 121,123,126,128

    Interchain bonds, 43 Intermolecular hydrogen bonds, 39 Intersheet interactions, 43 Intracellular, 139 Intrachain bonds, 43 Introduction, 56 Ionic forces, 39 Ionic liquids, 49 Irradiation, 48

  • INDEX 317

    Jet streams, 105,108,117,120

    Kinetic parameter, 281 Kitchen waste, 234,237-239,

    247-248,254,257 Kyoto protocol, 230

    Landfill, 215-218,222 Landfilling, 233-234 L-arabinofuranosyl, 34 Lateral dimensions, 44 L-fucopyranosy, 33 Lignifi cations, 38 Lignin, 27 Lignocellulose, 162-163 Lignocellulosic Biomass, 57,206 Lignocellulosic Feedstocks, 60 Lignocellulosic wastes, 261 Load bearing structure, 41 Load-shock pretreatment, 291, 294,

    295, 298,299,301,304

    Mechanical Pretreatment, 7 Mesophilic, 248,251,253, 257 Metabolic process, 294 Metallic filter, 237 Methane, 92,94,124,126,129,

    137, 234-235, 240, 244,247, 249-253,255, 257

    Methane formation, enzyme application, 179-180 yield increase, 180-181

    Methanogenesis, 93, 94, 95,124, 166-170,252

    Methanogenic activity, 292,293,302 Methanogenic bacteria, 291,250,252 Methanogens, 291, 292, 294,297,

    298, 300 Michaelis-Menten,

    constant, 159 kinetic, 158-160

    Microbial, 139 Microbial communities in

    anaerobic digestion,

    activity, 166-169 carbon dioxide, 167-169 hydrogen, 167 species involved, 167-169

    Microbial community, 291, 303, 304,305

    Microbial Diversity, 299, 300, 303, 305

    Microbubbles, 102,103,107, 117,122

    Microfibril angle, 29 Microfibrils aggregate, 31 Micro-organism, 238 Microorganisms, 93, 97, 98, 99,

    121,129 Microwave, 137,149,159 Microwave irradiation, 294, 300 Microwave pretreatment, 262 Mid, 244,257 Mixed culture, 291, 292,299,

    300,303 Mixed-link glucans, 32 Model calibration, 284 Model validation, 285 Modeling, 275 Molecular interactions, 39

    Nanomaterial, 110, 111 Non-covalent interactions, 39

    Optimiazation, 266 Organic, 216-218, 221, 222 Organic Solvents, 210 Organic waste, 292, 235 Organosolves, 49 Oxidation with Peroxides, 205 Oxidative Pretreatment Methods,

    199 Ozonation, 209 Ozone, 92, 97, 98,113,115

    Particle size, 47, 95,108,121,122, 124,125,126,127,129

    p-coumaryl alcohol, 38

  • 318 INDEX

    Pectic polysaccharides, 36 Pectin, 163 Pectins, 36 Peracetic Acid, 207 Phylogenetic distribution, 303 Physical barrier, 30 Physical Pretreatment, 6 Physicochemical properties, 47 Plant cell wall, structure and

    components, 162-163 Plant cell walls, 28 Plant defense system, 28 Polymeric, 139 Pressure, 92, 95,96, 97,101,102,

    103,104,105,106,107,108, 114,116,130,225

    Pretreatment, 91,92,93,95,96, 97,98,99,100,117,120, 121,124,125,126,128,131, 132,267

    Pre-treatment, 237, 238-239 Pretreatment methods, 291,294,

    295,296,299, 301, 302 Pretreatment Methods for

    Lignocellulosic Biomass, 57 Pretreatment Methods for Sewage

    Sludge, 77 Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic

    Biomass, 62 Pretreatments, 46 Pretreatments in Anaerobic

    Digestion Process, 2 Primary cell wall, 28 Probe, 115,123 Process Description and

    Generalities, 200 Protuberances, 50 Psychrophilic, 248

    Radicals, 102,104,106,107,108, 114,116,117,131

    Radio waves, 141 Radius, 103,104,105,120 Rarefaction, 100,101,102,118

    Rate limiting step, 159,167,170 Reactor, 96,106,108,115,118,119,

    123,130 Recalcitrance, 27 Recycling, 217,218 References, 20, 85 Regeneration, 43 Regeneration treatment, 43 Renewable energy, 230,232-233,

    258 Response surface methodology,

    262 Rhamnogalacturonans, 37 Rosettes, 42 Rumen culture, 266 Rumen fluid, 263

    Salmonella spp., 147 Scaffold, 49 Screening, 238-239 Secondary cell wall, 28 Selective enrichment, 291,292,294,

    297,298,300 Semi continuous, 241,250,256 Sensitivity analysis, 283 Sewage, 216,217,221 Shear forces, 108,117,118,120,121,

    122,129 Sheer stress, 45 Shock wave/s , 101,108, 111 Shredding, 238-239 Sinapyl alcohol, 38 Sludge, 217, 221, 235,238-242, 244,

    247-249, 252-253 Sludge disintegration, 91,93,117,

    118,120,121,122,123,126, 127,129,130,132

    Sludge Pretreatment, 78 Solid waste, 233-234 Solids, 137 Solubilization, 92, 97, 98, 99,121 Soluble COD, SCOD, 120,121,122,

    124,127,128,129,131 Solvents & Process Conditions, 211

  • INDEX 319

    Sonication, 93,103,109,115,117, 118,119,120,121,122,123, 124,125,126,127,128,129, 130,131

    Sonochemical, 102,117,118, 126,130

    Sonochemiluminescence, 104,106 Sonochemistry, 107,109,110,

    111, 114 Sonoluminescence, 104,106,

    108,114 Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate,

    SOUR, 129,130 Spore forming bacteria, 294,

    295, 297 Stereo-irregular polysaccharides, 31 Stereo-regular homopolymer, 30 Stoichiometric, 280 Storage macromolecules, 32 Structure of Lignocellulosic

    Biomass, 58 Substrate degradation, 301,302,

    303, 305 Suppression, 294,301 Surface-limiting kinetics, 262 Sustainable, 230,257-258

    Technologies, 231-233 Technology, 217, 226 Temperature, 95, 96, 98,100,102,

    103,104,105,106,107,108, 110,116,117,118,119,121, 125,129

    Tertiary wall, 29 Theoretical availability, 219 Thermal, 92,95,96,108,114,

    117,121 Thermal Pretreatment, 8 Thermocouple, 240 Thermophilic, 251 Total solid (ts), 238-240, 248,

    254-255 Trace elements,

    enzymatic interaction, 190-191

    Transducer, 100,115,123,130 Transient, 101,105,106,108 Transmission, 224,225 Transparents, 144 Treatment, 91,92,95,96,97,

    98, 99,100,109,110, HI , 113,114,115,116,117, 118,119,120,121,122, 125,126,130,131, 215-219, 226

    Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP), 215-218

    Turbidity, 113,126 Turbulence, 97,102,108

    Ultrasonic disintegration, 100,117, 121,122

    Ultrasound, 91, 92, 93, 98,100, 101,102,104,105,106, 107,108,110,116,117,118, 120,121,122,123,125, 126,127,128,130,131,132, 139,141

    Ultrasound-assisted Pretreatment, 10

    Viscosity of digester content, dewaterability, 186,188 enhancement, 186-189,191 solubility, 186-187

    Volataile fatty acids, 292, 297,303

    Volatile Fatty Acids, VFA, 94, 125,126

    Volatile solid (vs), 238-240, 248, 254-255

    Volatile Solids, VS, 92,116,120, 124,125

    Wall porosity, 41 Warty layer, 29 Waste, 215-222, 226

    Agricultural, 217,219, 220,222

    Industrial, 217, 218

  • 320 INDEX

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), 217,218,221

    Wastewater, 215-218 Waste Activated Sludge, WAS, 98,

    122,124,125,128,131 Waste Sludge, 207 Wastewater, 91,92,99,100,

    111, 113,114,115,116,125, 130,131,137,139,291, 292,305

    Wastewater treatment, 291,302 Wet Air Oxidation, 200

    Wet Air Oxidation of Lignocellulosic Biomass, 202

    Wet Air Oxidation of Waste Sludge, 203

    X-ray diffraction (xrd), 269 Xylan, 162-163 Xylogalacturonans, 37 Xyloglucans, 33 oc-D- galacturonic acid, 36 oc-D-xylopyranosyl, 33 -D-mannopyranosyl, 35

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