Biodiversity conservation and protected areas

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A selection of UK national parks, Peak Districts, Exmoor, South Downs, Dartmoor, New Forest, Snowdonia, Lake District, Scholarships, Summer Schools. A selection of US national parks: Yosemite, Yellowstone, Everglades,

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<ul><li><p>Biodiversity Conservation week 2</p><p>Marco Pautasso (m.pautasso@ic.ac.uk)</p><p>London Metropolitan Univ. - 2010</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks</p><p>Source: UK National Parks</p><p>Peak District</p><p>The oldest (since 1951) and most visited (~10 </p><p>million visitors/yr)</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: the Peak District</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: the Peak District</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks</p><p>Source: UK National Parks</p><p>Peak District</p><p>South Downs</p><p>The newest (since 2009) and most inhabited </p><p>(~120,000 people)</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: the South Downs</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: the South Downs</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks</p><p>Source: UK National Parks</p><p>Peak District</p><p>South Downs</p><p>New Forest</p><p>Established 2005, ~570km2</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: the New Forest</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: the New Forest</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks</p><p>Source: UK National Parks</p><p>Peak District</p><p>South DownsDartmoor</p><p>2x New Forest (size), but ~ same n </p><p>of inhabitants</p><p>New Forest</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: Dartmoor</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: Dartmoor</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks</p><p>Source: UK National Parks</p><p>Peak District</p><p>South DownsExmoor</p><p>Least visited (~1.4 million people/yr)</p><p>New ForestDartmoor</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: Exmoor</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: Exmoor</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks</p><p>Source: UK National Parks</p><p>Peak District</p><p>South Downs</p><p>Pembrokeshire</p><p>Second for money spent by visitors </p><p>(~500 million /yr)</p><p>New ForestDartmoor</p><p>Exmoor</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: Pembrokeshire</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: Pembrokeshire</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks</p><p>Source: UK National Parks</p><p>Peak District</p><p>South Downs</p><p>Snowdonia</p><p>~25,000 inhabitants,4.3 million visitors/yr, </p><p>~2200 km2</p><p>New ForestDartmoor</p><p>Exmoor</p><p>Pembrokeshire</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: Snowdonia</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks</p><p>Source: UK National Parks</p><p>Peak District</p><p>South Downs</p><p>Lake District</p><p>2nd for number of inhabitants and </p><p>visitors</p><p>New ForestDartmoor</p><p>Exmoor</p><p>Pembrokeshire</p><p>Snowdonia</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: Lake District</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: Lake District</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks</p><p>Source: UK National Parks</p><p>Peak District</p><p>South Downs</p><p>Loch Lomond</p><p>New ForestDartmoor</p><p>Exmoor</p><p>Pembrokeshire</p><p>Snowdonia</p><p>Lake District</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: Loch Lomond</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks</p><p>Source: UK National Parks</p><p>Peak District</p><p>South Downs</p><p>New ForestDartmoor</p><p>Exmoor</p><p>Pembrokeshire</p><p>Snowdonia</p><p>Lake District</p><p>North Yorkshire Moors</p><p>Loch Lomond</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks: North Yorkshire Moors</p><p>from Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>UK National Parks~10% of the UK area</p><p>Source: UK National Parks</p><p>Peak District</p><p>South Downs</p><p>New ForestDartmoor</p><p>Exmoor</p><p>Pembrokeshire</p><p>Snowdonia</p><p>Lake District</p><p>Loch LomondCairngorms</p><p>North Yorkshire Moors</p><p>Northumberland</p><p>BreconBeacons</p><p>Broads</p><p>North Yorkshire Dales</p></li><li><p>Species-people correlation in Europe</p><p>from Araujo (2003) Global Ecology &amp; Biogeography</p><p>plants birds</p><p>people</p><p>spp</p></li><li><p>Global biodiversity patterns: vascular plants</p><p>from Barthlott et al. (2007) Erdkunde</p></li><li><p>US National Parks: ~270 million visitors/yr</p><p>Source: Map Collection of the Library of the University of Texas at Austin, USA</p></li><li><p>Yellowstone (1988)</p><p>Source: NASA Earth Observatory</p></li><li><p>Nature protection in the USA: the Northwest</p><p>Source: Map Collection of the Library of the University of Texas at Austin, USA</p></li><li><p>US National Parks: Mount Rainier</p><p>Source: Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>US National Parks: Yosemite</p><p>Source: Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>Nature protection in the USA: the Southwest</p><p>Source: Map Collection of the Library of the University of Texas at Austin, USA</p></li><li><p>US National Parks: Yosemite</p><p>Source: Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>US National Parks: Big Bend</p><p>Source: Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>US National Parks: Big Bend</p><p>Source: Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>Nature protection in the USA: Alaska</p><p>Source: Map Collection of the Library of the University of Texas at Austin, USA</p></li><li><p>US National Parks: Denali (Alaska)</p><p>Source: Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>US National Parks: Glacier Bay</p><p>Source: Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>US National Parks: the Everglades</p><p>Source: Wikimedia Commons</p></li><li><p>Five botanic gardens in the UK</p><p>Source: BGCI</p><p>NAME PLACE PLANT SPECIES </p><p>AREA (HA) ESTABLISHED </p><p>Eden Project Bodelva, Cornwall ~5000 50 1997 </p><p>Wales National Botanic Garden </p><p>Llanarthne, Wales ~4000 60 2000 </p><p>Edinburgh Royal Botanic Garden </p><p>Edinburgh, Scotland ~12500 26 1670 </p><p>Oxford University Botanic Garden </p><p>Oxford, England ~8000 1.8 1621 </p><p>Chelsea Physic Garden London ~5000 1 1673 </p></li><li><p>Species richness vs. % of protected area</p><p>1. Link country with n of plant species Brazil 1,600 Britain 3,200 Canada 5,600 Italy 20,000 USA 56,000 1. Link country and % of terrestrial </p><p>protected area Brazil 15 China 22 Germany 27 UK 30 USA 56 </p><p>0</p><p>10</p><p>20</p><p>30</p><p>40</p><p>50</p><p>60</p><p>lessthan1%</p><p>1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-30 morethan30%</p><p>proportion of protected area</p><p>n</p><p>u</p><p>m</p><p>b</p><p>e</p><p>r</p><p>o</p><p>f</p><p>c</p><p>o</p><p>u</p><p>n</p><p>t</p><p>r</p><p>i</p><p>e</p><p>s</p><p>Source: UNEP, 2008</p></li><li><p>Are protected areas effective at preserving biodiversity?</p><p>Many protected areas tend to be located in relatively remote/inaccessible regions</p><p>Sometimes protected areas become tourist attractions</p><p>Protected area networks have often been created without international coordination </p></li><li><p>Efficiency and effectiveness of protected areas</p><p>Wiersma et al. (2009) Biological Conservation</p></li><li><p>Protected areas in Spain and Portugal</p><p>Araujo et al. (2008) Conservation Biology</p></li><li><p>Protected areas and human population growth</p><p>Wittemyer et al. (2008) Science</p></li><li><p>from: Lonsdale et al. (2008) European Journal of Forest Research</p><p>Random sample of 100 papers per year on species richness in WOS (1991-2004)</p></li><li><p>Which institutions other than National Parks aim to protect biodiversity?</p><p>* Government Departments</p><p>* Foundations and charities </p><p>* Research Institutes</p><p>* Private individuals </p><p>* NGOs </p></li><li><p>What can the single individual do to stop the loss of biodiversity?</p><p>Habitat fragmentation, degradation and loss</p><p>Water, air and soil pollution</p><p>Species introductions</p><p>Climate change</p><p>Trade, travel, transportation and tourism</p></li><li><p>Habitat fragmentation and loss in Amazonia</p><p>(2009) Source: NASA Earth Observatory</p></li><li><p>Air pollution due to urbanization: NO2</p><p>source: http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/EarthObservation/pollution_europe_hires.jpg</p><p>[1015 mol/cm2; Jan 2003- Jun 2004]</p></li><li><p>From: Hufnagel et al. (2005) PNAS (air) &amp; Kaluza et al. (2010) Interface (sea)</p><p>Species movements in a globalized world</p><p>passengers</p></li><li><p>From: Denis Loustau (2006) Climate change impacts on extensively managed forest: a modelling approach, Wilton Park Conference</p><p>Climate change and plant distribution shifts</p></li><li><p>Examples of how the single individual can make a difference in biodiversity conservation</p><p>1) Volunteer in conservation activities/ biodiversity education </p><p>2) Reduce consumption/Carbon emissions?</p><p>3) Adopt an environmentally friendly lifestyle</p><p>4) avoid unintended introductions of exotic species</p></li><li><p>Volunteering in biodiversity conservation</p></li><li><p>Volunteering in biodiversity conservation</p></li><li><p>Volunteering in biodiversity conservation</p></li><li><p>How can you get to know more about </p><p>biodiversity?</p><p>Source: Greater London </p><p>Authority</p></li><li><p>Scholarships in biodiversity conservation</p></li><li><p>Summer schools in biodiversity conservation</p></li><li><p>Conferences about biodiversity conservation</p></li><li><p>ReferencesBarbosa AM, Fontaneto D, Marini L &amp; Pautasso M (2010) Is the human population a large-scale indicator of the species richness of ground beetles? Animal Conservation 13: 432-441Cantarello E, Steck CE, Fontana P, Fontaneto D, Marini L &amp; Pautasso M (2010) A multi-scale study of Orthoptera species richness and human population size controlling for sampling effort. Naturwissenschaften 97: 265-271Golding J, Gsewell S, Kreft H, Kuzevanov VY, Lehvvirta S, Parmentier I &amp; Pautasso M (2010) Species-richness patterns of the living collections of the world's botanic gardens: a matter of socio-economics? Annals of Botany 105: 689-696Pautasso M (2010) Worsening file-drawer problem in the abstracts of natural, medical and social science databases. Scientometrics 85: 193-202Pautasso M &amp; Chiarucci A (2008) A test of the scale-dependence of the species abundance-people correlation for veteran trees in Italy. Annals of Botany 101: 709-715 Pautasso M &amp; Dinetti M (2009) Avian species richness, human population and protected areas across Italys regions. Environmental Conservation 36: 22-31Pautasso M &amp; Fontaneto D (2008) A test of the species-people correlation for stream macro-invertebrates in European countries. Ecological Applications 18: 1842-1849Pautasso M &amp; Parmentier I (2007) Are the living collections of the worlds botanical gardens following species-richness patterns observed in natural ecosystems? Botanica Helvetica 117: 15-28Pautasso M &amp; Powell G (2009) Aphid biodiversity is correlated with human population in European countries. Oecologia 160: 839-846Pautasso M &amp; Weisberg PJ (2008) Density-area relationships: the importance of the zeros. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17: 203-210Pautasso M &amp; Zotti M (2009) Macrofungal taxa and human population in Italy's regions. Biodiversity &amp; Conservation 18: 473-485Pautasso M et al (2010) Plant health and global change some implications for landscape management. Biological Reviews 85: 729-755Pautasso M et al (2011) Global macroecology of bird assemblages in urbanized and semi-natural ecosystems. Global Ecology &amp; Biogeography 20: 426-436Pecher C, Fritz S, Marini L, Fontaneto D &amp; Pautasso M (2010) Scale-dependence of the correlation between human population and the species richness of stream macroinvertebrates. Basic Applied Ecology 11: 272-280Schlick-Steiner B, Steiner F &amp; Pautasso M (2008) Ants and people: a test of two mechanisms behind the large-scale human-biodiversity correlation for Formicidae in Europe. Journal of Biogeography 35: 2195-2206Steck CE &amp; Pautasso M (2008) Human population, grasshopper and plant species richness in European countries. Acta Oecologica 34: 303-310</p></li></ul>