bio piracy

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Biological PiracyJoanna Lim and Kal Peralta

Introduction

Biological Piracy or Biopiracy for short is no different from DVD pirating. Before, there were no territorial disputes and there were no laws concerning the ownership of biological resources. Because of this, stealing of biological material increased.

Definition of Terms

Biopiracy- the illegal use or commercialization of biological objects Bioprospecting- collecting of biological resources for scientific knowledge Biological Theft- illegal collection of biological materials by corporations which patent them for their own use

Definition of Terms

Patent- exclusive right given by the government to the inventor to manufacture, use or sell an invention for a couple of years Biodiversity- the number and variety of organisms found in an environment Privatization- the change from public to private ownership or control

Definition of Terms

Bioprospectors- people who prospects for biological materials Biopirate- a person who uses or reproduces the work of an inventor without authorization Monoculture- a single homogeneous culture without diversity or dissension

Definition of Terms

Industrial Property- intellectual property that includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs and geographic indications of source

Related Literature

Biopiracy- illegal collection of biological materials by corporations who patent them for their own use - uses flora and fauna - exploitation of the medicine or knowledge of the traditional people -monopolization of biological resources

Related Literature-illegal, violates domestic law -doesnt respect, recognize, or give credit to the rightful owner of the life forms

Bioprospecting- search for biological resources and indigenous knowledge used for commercial exploitation

Related Literature

Biopiracy is NOT the same as bioprospecting. Bioprospecting is NOT a threat to biodiversity because it does not take something from ones own use without obtaining the Prior Informed Consent (PIC). Bioprospecting gives credit or compensation UNLIKE biopiracy.

Related Literature

Main Sources of Biopiracy:Corporations Academic Institutions Governments

They claim intellectual property over genetic resources (patents on life)

Related Literature

Nanotechnology- manipulation of individual atoms and molecules Nanopirates claim ownership of molecules and even it elements where they came from CBD (Convention of Biological Diversity) believe that agreements can be arranged for both parties to for the benefit of the majority in overcoming biopiracy

Position on the Issue

Pro-Biopiracy:It will help the advancement of technology and enrich the scientific knowledge. Cures of different diseases can be discovered. Can life be owned?

Position on the Issue

Con-Biopiracy:Causes imbalance in the biodiversity. Stealing of intellectual rights

Indigenous people lose profit No credit is given to the proper owner of the material

No definite laws that concern biopiracy Pharmaceuticals abuse in order to gain profit

Rosy Periwinkle (Catharansus Roseus)Native and endemic to Madagascar Evergreen subshrub Vinblastine and vincristine used to treat Leukemia Treats diabetes, malaria and Hodgkins disease Conflict between western companies and indigenous groups because of

Neem Tree (Azadirachta Indica)

Found in India fast- growing evergreen that can reach 20 m in height Azardirachtin-astringency chemical found in the tree Treats leprosy, diabetes, ulcers, skin diseases and constipation 1971-Robert Larson found Margosan-O and received patent from the US Environmental Protection agency in 1985

Conclusion/Resolution

Definite laws that must be followed by everyoneCBD must have a standard set of rules for everyone in order to avoid confusion. Must reach an agreement

Illegal activity or biopirates must be fined if caught Pharmaceutical companies must respect the people or the country