Bhut Jolokia Chili Pepper

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<p>Bhut Jolokia chili pepper</p> <p>1</p> <p>Bhut Jolokia chili pepperBhut Jolokia chili</p> <p>Heat Scoville rating</p> <p>Exceptionally hot 330,0001,000,000</p> <p>The Bhut Jolokia chili pepper[1][2] (Assamese: bhut jlkia; Bengali: naga morich;[Nepali]: 'Jogi Khursani' Manipuri: umorok[3][4]), as it is commonly knownalso known variously by other names (see etymology section below) in its native region, sometimes Naga Jolokiais a chili pepper previously recognized by Guinness World Records as the hottest pepper in the world. The pepper is typically called the ghost chili by U.S. media.[5][6][7] The Bhut Jolokia is an interspecific hybrid cultivated in the Nagaland and Assam region of northeastern India and parts of neighbouring Bangladesh.[8][9] It grows in the Indian states of Assam, Nagaland and Manipur. It can also be found in rural Sri Lanka where it is known as Nai Mirris (cobra chili). There was initially some confusion and disagreement about whether the Bhut was a Capsicum frutescens[10] or a Capsicum chinense pepper, but DNA tests showed it to be an interspecies hybrid, mostly C. chinense with some C. frutescens genes.[11] In 2007, Guinness World Records certified the Bhut Jolokia as the world's hottest chili pepper, 401.5 times hotter than Tabasco sauce.[12] Since then, the Infinity chilli, Naga Viper pepper, Trinidad Scorpion Butch T pepper and Trinidad Moruga Scorpion have surpassed the Bhut Jolokia's Scoville rating.</p> <p>Bhut Jolokia chili pepper</p> <p>2</p> <p>EtymologyThe pepper is called by different names in different regions. An article in the Asian Age newspaper stated that experts in Assam are worried about a distortion of the colloquial nomenclature of "Bhot" to "bhut", saying that this word was misinterpreted by the (Western) media to mean "ghost".[13][14] The article stated that people living north of the Brahmaputra River call the pepper "Bhot jolokia", "Bhot" meaning "of Bhotiya origin", or something that has come from the hills of adjoining Bhutan; on the southern bank of the river Brahmaputra, this chili becomes Naga jolokia, believed to have originated from the hills of Nagaland.[13] An alternative source for Naga jolokia is that the name originates from the ferocious Naga warriors inhabiting Nagaland.[15] Further complicating matters, a 2009 paper, published in the Asian Agri-History journal, coined the English term "Naga king chili" and stated that the most common Indian (Assamese) usage is bhoot jolokia,[16][17] which refers to the chili's large pod size, and gives the alternate common name as bih jolokia (bih means "poison" in Assamese, denoting the plant's heat). The assertion that bhut (bhoot) means "ghost" is claimed by researchers from the New Mexico State University, but as in the article from the Asian Age, denied by Indian researchers from Nagaland University.[11][16] The Assamese word "jolokia" simply means the Capsicum pepper. Other usages on the subcontinent are saga jolokia, Indian mystery chili, and Indian rough chili (after the chili's rough skin).[16][18] It has also been called the Tezpur chili after the Assamese city of Tezpur.[15] In Manipur, the chili is called umorok,[19] or oo-morok (oo = "tree", morok = "chili").</p> <p>Scoville ratingIn 2000, India's Defence Research Laboratory (DRL) reported a rating of 855,000 heat units (SHU) on the Scoville scale,[10] and in 2004 a rating of 1,041,427 units was made using HPLC analysis.[20] For comparison, Tabasco red pepper sauce rates at 2,5005,000, and pure capsaicin (the chemical responsible for the pungency of pepper plants) rates at 16,000,000 SHU. In 2005, at New Mexico State University Chili Pepper Institute near Las Cruces, New Mexico, regents Professor Paul Bosland found Bhut Jolokia grown from seed in southern New Mexico to have a Scoville rating of 1,001,304 SHU by HPLC.[8] The effect of climate on the Scoville rating of Bhut Jolokia peppers is dramatic. A 2005 study comparing percentage availability of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in Bhut Jolokia peppers grown in Tezpur (Assam) and Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh), India showed that the heat of the pepper is decreased by over 50% in Gwalior's more arid climate.[21] Elsewhere in India, scientists at Manipur University measured Bhut Jolokia's average Scoville rating by HPLC at only 329,100 SHU.[19]</p> <p>Bhut Jolokia chili pepper</p> <p>3</p> <p>CharacteristicsRipe peppers measure 60 to 85 mm (unknown operator: u'strong' to unknown operator: u'strong' in) long and 25 to 30 mm (unknown operator: u'strong' to unknown operator: u'strong' in) wide with a red, yellow, orange or chocolate color. The unselected strain of Bhut Jolokia from India is an extremely variable plant, with a wide range in fruit sizes and amount of fruit production per plant, and offers a huge potential for developing much better strains through selection in the future. Bhut Jolokia pods are unique among peppers, with their characteristic shape, and very thin skin.[22] However, for the red fruit variety, there are two different fruit types, the rough, dented fruit and the smooth fruit. The images on this page show the smooth fruit form. The rough fruit plants are taller, with more fragile branches, and the smooth fruit plants yields more fruit, and is a more compact plant with sturdier branches.[23]Plant height Stem color Leaf color Leaf length Leaf width Pedicels per axil Corolla color Anther color Annular constriction 45120cm Green Green 10.6514.25cm 5.47.5cm 2 Yellow green Pale blue Present below calyx</p> <p>Fruit color at maturity Red is the most common, with orange, yellow and chocolate as rarer varieties</p> <p>Fruit shape Fruit length</p> <p>Sub-conical to conical 5.958.54cm</p> <p>Fruit width at shoulder 2.52.95cm Fruit weight Fruit surface Seed color 1000 seed weight Seeds per fruit Hypocotyl color 6.958.97 g Rough, uneven or smooth Light tan 4.15.2 g 1935 Green</p> <p>Cotyledonous leaf shape Deltoid</p> <p>UsesBhut Jolokia is used as a food and a spice as well as a remedy to summer heat, presumably by inducing perspiration in the consumer.[9] In northeastern India, the peppers are smeared on fences or incorporated in smoke bombs as a safety precaution to keep wild elephants at a distance.[24][25]</p> <p>As a weaponIn 2009, scientists at India's Defence Research and Development Organisation announced plans to use the peppers in hand grenades, as a non lethal way to flush out terrorists from their hideouts and to control rioters. It will also be developed into pepper spray as a self defense product.[26][27]</p> <p>Bhut Jolokia chili pepper R. B. Srivastava, the director of the Life Sciences Department at the New Delhi headquarters of India's Defence Research and Development Organisation (who also led a defense research laboratory in Assam), said bhut jolokia-based aerosol sprays could be used by women as a "safety device", and "civial variants" of chili grenades could be used to control and disperse mobs.[28]</p> <p>4</p> <p>Dorset NagaDorset Naga (Capsicum chinensis) is a subspecies of the original Naga, selected from the Bangladeshi varieties of the chili, naga morich. Annually, since 2005, the heat level of Dorset Naga has been tested, taking samples from different sites, various seasons and states of maturity. The heat level has ranged from 661,451 SHU for green fruit in 2007, up to 1,032,310 SHU for ripe fruit harvested in 2009.[29] High as the results were, the BBC's Gardeners' World television programme recorded a much higher heat level for Dorset Naga. As part of the 2006 programming, the BBC gardening team ran a trial looking at several chili varieties, including Dorset Naga. Heat levels were tested by Warwick HRI and the Dorset Naga came in at 1,598,227 SHU, one of the hottest heat levels ever recorded for a chili.[30]</p> <p>Gallery</p> <p>References[1] http:/ / assamgovt. nic. in/ business/ resources. asp [2] http:/ / www. assamtimes. org/ business/ 3391. html [3] Magnier, Mark (2011-10-13). "Some like it really hot" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ news/ nationworld/ world/ la-fg-india-chili-20111013,0,4632510,full. story). Los Angeles Times. . [4] Meetei, Lukram. "Umorok the hottest chilli of the world and its value" (http:/ / e-pao. net/ epSubPageExtractor. asp?src=leisure. Essays. Umorok_the_hottest_chilli_of_the_world). . [5] "''Ghost Chili'' Scares Off Elephants" (http:/ / news. nationalgeographic. com/ news/ 2007/ 11/ photogalleries/ elephant-pictures/ photo4. html). News.nationalgeographic.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-11. [6] http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?id=LJYeAAAAIBAJ&amp; sjid=SIYEAAAAIBAJ&amp; pg=6393,9014&amp; dq=ghost-chili&amp; hl=en [7] Ritter, Peter (2007-02-22). "6,000 Years of Red Hot Chili Peppers" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,1592570,00. html). TIME. . Retrieved 2010-04-11. [8] Shaline L. Lopez (2007). "NMSU is home to the world's hottest chile pepper" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070219124128/ http:/ / www. nmsu. edu/ ~ucomm/ Releases/ 2007/ february/ hottest_chile. htm). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. nmsu. edu/ ~ucomm/ Releases/ 2007/ february/ hottest_chile. htm) on 2007-02-19. . Retrieved 2007-02-21.</p> <p>Bhut Jolokia chili pepper[9] "'Ghost chile' burns away stomach ills - Diet &amp; Nutrition - MSNBC.com:" (http:/ / www. msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 20058096/ ). Associated Press. 2007. . Retrieved 2007-08-05. [10] Mathur R, et al. (2000). "The hottest chili variety in India" (http:/ / www. ias. ac. in/ currsci/ aug102000/ scr974. pdf) (PDF). Current Science 79 (3): 2878. . [11] Paul W. Bosland and Jit B. Baral (2007). "'Bhut Jolokia'The World's Hottest Known Chile Pepper is a Putative Naturally Occurring Interspecific Hybrid" (http:/ / cahe. nmsu. edu/ chilepepperinstitute/ documents/ bhutjolokia. pdf). Horticultural Science 42 (2): 2224. . [12] "New World Champ - The World's Hottest Chile Pepper." (http:/ / ushotstuff. com/ worldshottestchile. htm). . Retrieved 2010-09-29. [13] Anand, Manoj. "Assams mirch will help make chilli grenade" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20091207170242/ http:/ / www. asianage. com/ presentation/ leftnavigation/ asian-age-plus/ news-plus/ assams-mirch-will-help-make-chilli-grenade. aspx). The Asian Age. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. asianage. com/ presentation/ leftnavigation/ asian-age-plus/ news-plus/ assams-mirch-will-help-make-chilli-grenade. aspx) on 7 December 2009. . Retrieved 24 April 2012. [14] "The Assam Times - The actual meaning of the word Bhot Jolokia, the world's hottest chili" (http:/ / www. assamtimes. org/ knowledge-development/ 288. html). www.assamtimes.org. . Retrieved 2011-11-05. [15] Dave DeWitt, Dave DeWitt coauthors=Paul W. Bosland (2009). The Complete Chile Pepper Book (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=90M5Tw0530gC&amp; pg=PA158). Timber Press. p.158. ISBN0-88192-920-4. . [16] Raktim Ranjan Bhagowati et al (2009). "Genetic Variability and Traditional Practices in Naga King Chili Landraces of Nagaland" (http:/ / www. agri-history. org/ pdf/ 171 to 180. pdf) (PDF). Asian Agri-History 13 (3): pp. 171180. . [17] "The Telegraph - Calcutta (Kolkata) Northeast 'Hottest' chef gets a taste of hottest jolokia" (http:/ / www. telegraphindia. com/ 1090410/ jsp/ northeast/ story_10799180. jsp). Calcutta, India: www.telegraphindia.com. 2009-04-10. . Retrieved 2010-01-19. [18] Rajghatta, Chidanand (6 September 2009). "Saga Jolokia: Indian chilli acquires cult following in US" (http:/ / articles. economictimes. indiatimes. com/ 2009-09-06/ news/ 27639149_1_bhut-jolokia-indian-chilli-naga-jolokia). The Economic Times (New Dehli, India: The Times Group). . Retrieved 24 April 2012. [19] SANATOMBI K., G. J. SHARMA (2008). "Capsaicin Content and Pungency of Different Capsicum spp. Cultivars" (http:/ / notulaebotanicae. ro/ nbha/ article/ viewFile/ 345/ 346) (PDF). Not. Bot. Hort. Agrobot. Cluj. 36 (2): pp. 8990. ISSN1842-4309. . [20] "Bih jolokia" (http:/ / www. frontalagritech. co. in/ products/ bihjolokia_gen. htm). 2006. . Retrieved 2006-12-12. [21] Tiwari A, et al. (2005). "Adaptability and production of hottest chili variety under Gwalior climatic conditions" (http:/ / www. ias. ac. in/ currsci/ may252005/ 1545. pdf) (PDF). Current Science 88 (10): 15456. . [22] Barker, Catherine L. (2007). "Hot Pod: World's Hottest". National Geographic Magazine 2007 (May): p.21 [23] Dremann, Craig Carlton. 2011. Redwood City Seed Company, Observations on the variations in the Bhut Jolokia pepper from seed reproduction growouts. [24] Hussain, Wasbir (2007-11-20). "World's Hottest Chile Used as Elephant Repellent" (http:/ / news. nationalgeographic. com/ news/ 2007/ 11/ 071120-AP-india-elephants. html). National Geographic. . Retrieved 2007-11-21. [25] "Ghost Chile Scares Off Elephants" (http:/ / news. nationalgeographic. com/ news/ 2007/ 11/ photogalleries/ elephant-pictures). National Geographic News website. National Geographic. 2007-11-20. . Retrieved 2008-08-18. [26] (http:/ / ibnlive. in. com/ news/ armys-new-weapon-worlds-hottest-chili/ 111958-19. html?from=tn), (http:/ / www. dailymail. co. uk/ news/ article-552028/ Curry-bomb-Indian-army-chiefs-reveal-latest-weapon-war-terror. html), (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ 8119591. stm), (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 2010/ mar/ 23/ india-chilli-bhut-jolokia-terrorism), (http:/ / www. dailymail. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ article-1004017/ India-makes-bomb-grenade-chili. html), (http:/ / www. myfoxillinois. com/ dpps/ news/ dpgoh-chili-grenades-tested-by-indian-army-fc-20100319_6643324), (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ scitech/ 2010/ 03/ 19/ indian-army-unveils-blinding-chili-grenade/ ), (http:/ / news. oneindia. in/ 2010/ 03/ 24/ indian-army-to-use-chilli-grenades-to-fight-terror. html) [27] "South Asia | India plans hot chilli grenades" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ south_asia/ 8119591. stm). BBC News. 2009-06-25. . Retrieved 2010-04-11. [28] Bhaumik, Subir (24 March 2010). "India scientists hail 'multi-purpose' chillis" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ 8584988. stm). BBC News (City of Westminster, England: BBC). . Retrieved 24 April 2012. [29] http:/ / www. dorsetnaga. com/ [30] "Some Like It Hot: Dorset's Ultra-Hot Chillies" (http:/ / www. thetraveleditor. com/ article/ 3646/ Feature_Article_Foodie_Some_Like_It_Hot_Dorset_s_Ultra_Hot_Chillies. html). . Retrieved 2010-08-25.</p> <p>5</p> <p>Article Sources and Contributors</p> <p>6</p> <p>Article Sources and ContributorsBhut Jolokia chili pepper Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=492812569 Contributors: 17tylermat, 5 albert square, 777sms, 90, 999mal, A. Parrot, AbigailAbernathy, Abyss of enchantment, Acalamari, Ace116, AdRem, Aerotheque, Alan Liefting, Alanbly, Alansohn, Alantex, Aleksa Lukic, Alfred Centauri, AllYrBaseRbelongUs, Alphachimp, Altruism, Amber388, Andrewpmk, Animum, Anna Frodesiak, Arbitor5407, Arcandam, Arctic Night, Arpegiator, Arthurbrown, Artras, Asfreeas, Atulsnischal, Auntof6, Avenged Eightfold, Avriette, AwamerT, Axl, Badagnani, Baffle gab1978, Barticus88, Baruah78, Beastiepaws, Belowenter, Benfergy, Bento00, Besibi, Bigal4336, Bobo192, Bod...</p>

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