bhel - technology and application overview of fuel cells-manmohan singh chandoliya

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  • TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION OVERVIEW OFFUEL CELLS by

    MANMOHAN SINGH CHANDOLIYARTU KOTA,YIT JAIPUR

    Ref. - Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited,Corporate Research & Development Division ,Vikas Nagar,Hyderabad

  • .MILLIONS OF YEARS AGO, THERE WAS NO MAN KIND..ONLY PRE-HISTORIC LIVING SPECIES..CLIMATE/ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE(NATURAL)ECOLOGICAL CHANGE (MAN-MADE).RESULTED IN THE EVOLUTION OF MANKIND..LOGICALLY WILL SEE THE EXTINCTION OF THE PRESENT LIVING FORMSUNLESS WE DO SOMETHING ABOUT REVERSING WHAT WE ARE DOING

  • ENERGY IS THE PRIME MOVER FOR THE WHEELS OF LIFEQUEST FOR NEW SOURCES & NEW CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES TO USABLE FORMSEARTH-THE HOLDING POT OF SUM TOTAL OF ALL FORMS OF ENERGYSTILL ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS WILL DICTATE FORMS OF LIFE-

  • WORLD POPULATION EXPECTED TO GROW TO 8 BILLION IN 2020WILL REQUIRE 90 BILLION bpd OF OIL7 B.TONS OF COAL/YR40 TRILLION Cu.M/YR OF NG50% OF THIS ENERGY WILL BE REQUIRED IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

  • 16% OF WORLD POPULATION WITH 0.6% OF OIL & 6% OF COAL RESOURCES.IN 2000-01, ENERGY SHORTAGE - 7.8%, PEAK LOAD SHORTAGE -13%.PER CAPITA ENERGY CONSUMPTION IS FAR LESS COMPARED TO GLOBAL STANDARDS (482 kWHr IN 1997 - CHINA 922 - WORLD 1562).BY 2025, INDIA WILL BE THE MOST POPULOUS COUNTRY IN THE WORLD.COUPLED WITH THE GDP GROWTH REQUIREMENTS, THE ADDITIONAL ENERGY REQUIREMENT WILL BE MIND BOGGLING.HOW DO WE MANAGE THIS?-------------------

  • ----------- THE ANSWER WILL HAVE TO BE FOUND ON BOTH SIDES OF THE EQUATION.

    (SOURCE, TECHNOLOGY, EFFICIENCY) (ALTERNATIVES, EQUIPMENT, LIFE STYLE)------------STILL, WE CAN NOT AVOID THE INEVITABLE, BUT WE CAN DELAY THE SAME.ENERGY SUPPLY=ENERGY DEMAND

  • ELECTRIFICATION RATE ( %)WORLD -72.8DEV COUNTRIES -64.2OECD-99.2INDIA-43.0CHINA-98.6SRILANKA-62.0PAKISTAN-52.9BANGLADESH-20.4.

  • FOCUS ON FUEL CELLSOUR PRESENT LIFESTYLE CANNOT DO AWAY WITH FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY SOURCES IMMEDIATELY.BUT, ADOPTING ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS WITH HIGHER EFICIENCY WILL REDUCE GH GAS GENERATION.FUEL CELLS MEET THIS REQUIREMENT ADEQUATELY.ALSO, BEING A COMBUTIONLESS SYSTEM THERE IS NO EMISSSION OF SOX/NOX.

  • Part I : Fuel Cell Technology- an Overview

  • Principle of Operation of a Typical Fuel Cell

  • Repeating elements used in a typical cell stack

  • Major sub-systems in a typical Fuel Cell Power Plant

  • Fuel cells provide a range of critical benefits that no other single power-generating technology can match.

    Some of the key characteristics of fuel cells are :

    Fuel Cells are Efficient even at part loads

    Fuel Cells are modular

    Fuel Cells provide high availability and reliability

    Fuel Cells can operate on a variety of fuels

    Fuel Cells are Clean & Quiet

    Benefits of Fuel Cells

  • Types of Fuel Cells

  • Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

  • PEMFC applications

  • MCFC &DFC applications

  • SOFC tubular and planer design

  • 100 kW SOFC Cogeneration System formerly at Westervoort, the Netherlands, currently at Essen, Germany. As of January 2002 the system has operated in a total of 20,000+ hours. The system has a peak power of ~140 kW, typically feeding 109 kW into the local grid and 64 kW of hot water into the local district heating system, and is operating at an electrical efficiency of 46%. Simple-cycle Atmospheric SOFC Cogeneration System

  • World's First Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid now Operating in California 220-kW hybrid system with a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) generator and a down-stream micro-turbine SOFC stack

  • Part II : BHELs Activities in Fuel Cell Area

  • Fuel Cells at BHEL (History of Development)1987-1990: Started work on PAFC. Made single cells and small stacks (100-200 cm2)1991: Demonstrated a 1 kW stack (chlor-alkali plant, 40 cells,with imported bipolar plates, ~400 cm2)1995: Demonstrated 5 kW stacks (chlor-alkali plant, 80 cells, ~900 cm2, Laminated bipolar plates, 300*400 mm, Rolled electrodes)2001: Demonstrated 2*25 kW stacks (chlor-alkali plant, 160 cells / stack, ~1600 cm2, molded bipolar plates, screen printed electrodes) 2002:Acquired basic PEMFC technology from IISc,single cell testing

  • The 50kW Power Pack during testing at BHEL R&D during December 2000

  • Salient features of 50 kW stack (2 x 25 kW fuel cell stack)2 x 25 kW stacksPlate area 500mm x 400mm = 2000 sqcmEffective Cell Area = 1500 sqcmNumber of cells in each stack = 160Air cooling systemWater to air Heat exchanger system Inverter and DC loading systemData acquisition and storage systemCurrent densities achieved in the range of 200 to 250 mA/sqcmOperating voltage in the range of 550 to 600 mV per cell

  • 200 kW PC 25 C PAFC Power Plant at BHEL R&D

  • Part III :Fuel Cell Application Opportunities in India

  • Fuel Cells Application in IndiaRailwaysPassenger Coaches lighting and fans4 kW systems mounted on the passenger coachRequirement 4500 coachesPower cars for long distance Shatabdi & Rajdhani 200 kW systems / 2 per train / 25 trainsIllumination of level crossingUp to 1 kW systems / Around 8000 to 10000 Lighting of isolated railway stations 5 to 10 kW systems / Up to 1000 stationsEmergency power supply for control rooms10-25 kW systems / Up to 200 - 500 control rooms

  • Fuel Cells Application in IndiaTransportation Two Wheeler4 kW systems / 75,000 to 1,00,000Three Wheeler6-8 kW systems / 25,000 to 50,000Buses100 kW systems / 1,000 to 5,000Merchant Navy100-200 kW / 100 to 200

  • Fuel Cells Application in IndiaStrategicData Processing centres 1- 5 kW systems / around 5,000

    Soft ware Companies 25 50kW / around 1,000

    Communication Centres 1-5 kW systems / around 20,000

    Remote Area Installations 1-2 kW systems / around 1,000

    Off shore oil rig installations 25-50 kW systems up to 500

  • Fuel Cells Application in IndiaCommercial establishmentsShops in Malls and Underground bazaars1 to 3 kW systems / around 1,00,000Small Business Establishments5-10 kW systems / 50,000Entertainment Industry25-50 kW systems / 500 to 1,000Hotels, restaurants & Resorts100-200 kW systems / up to 500 unitsHospitals 200-500 kW systems / up to 200 unitsResidential Complexes50-200 kW systems / 30,000 to 50,000

  • Part IV : Issues in Fuel Cell Application in DPG

  • Distributed GenerationRural (Remote areas)Urban ( Hotels ,Hospitals ,Ent.centres, Software dev. centres)Strategic (Communication centres, Defense, Chemicals and Pharmaceutical plants)

  • Fuel options Urban :- Hydrogen,NG,Methanol,LPG, Di-gasRural :- Ethanol ,BiogasStrategic:- Hydrogen, NG, LPG, Methanol

    Technology of fuel cells will depend upon the type of fuel available

  • Capacity /Duty cycleUrban/Strategic High Power Capacity Base Load (High temp.Fuel Cells)Rural Low Power Capacity Cyclic Load (Low temp.Fuel Cells)

    No.of start stops will determine the life cycle of HT fuel cells.

  • Other IssuesStarting power - Rural area (Black start) Others (Brown start) Cost Factor - Still not affordable without Govt.subsidyMarket Size - Traditional tussle between cost and volumeOp.& Maint. - Being high technology item requires careful handling

  • PART- V: AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF FUEL CELLS

  • NEED VS GROUND REALITIES

    WORLDWIDE, TRANSPORT VECHICLES ARE THE SINGLE LARGEST CONTRIBUTOR TO THE GH GASES. IC ENGINES CONVERT FUELS CHEMICAL ENERGY TO WHEEL POWER AT VERY LOW EFFICIENCIES. THOUGH THE NEED FOR HIGHER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY IS FELT AND THE DESIRABILITY OF FUEL CELLS IS VINDICATED, PEOPLE WOULD BE INFLUENCED BY:- COST- PERFORMANCE- CONVENIENCE (INFRASTRUCTURE)

  • FUEL - THE CRUCIAL FACTORFUEL CELL POWER STACKVEHICLE PROPULSION SYSTEMFROM GROUND BASED FUELINFRASTRUCTURE (EXTERNAL REFORMATION)

    GASOLENEMETHANOLHYDRIDE REPLENISHMENT FROM GROUND SOURCESHYDROGEN

  • ISSUES FOR EACH OPTION

    . ON -BOARD PRESSURIZED HYROGEN : COMPRESSION PRESS 10000 PSI ; LARGE SPACE REQUIREMENT ; OCCUPIES EIGHT TIMES THE VOLUME OF GASOLENE.. ON BOARD LIQUIFIED HYDROGEN:- HIGH ENERGY REQUIRED FOR COOLING THE GAS TO LIQUID IN CRYOGENIC TANKS (-2530C); HIGH COST OF CRYO TANKS.. METHANOL REFORMATION : REFORMATION AT 260 - 300 0C ; TOXIC AND POISONOUS WITH INVISIBLE FLAME ; EASY TRANSPORTABILITY AND HANDLING ; EXISTING FUEL INFRASTRUCTURE CAN BE USED.

  • ISSUES (CONTD)

    4. GASOLENE REFORMATION : REFORMATION AT 6000C ; LESS EFFICIENT THAN METHANOL AND PRODUCES MORE EMISSIONS ; EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE CAN BE USED..METAL HYDRIDES : PRESENTLY RARE-EARTH METAL HYDRIDES ONLY STORE 1.5 - 2.0% HYDROGEN BY WEIGHT ; RESULTANT WEIGHT MAKES IT UNVIABLE FOR CARS WITH RANGE OF 300 KMs ; REQUIRES GROUND INFRASTRUCTURE FOR RECHARGING.. SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE : SAFE CARRIER OF HYDROGEN ; REQUIRES LESS VOLUME THAN COMPRESSED HYDROGEN ; REQUIRES GROUND INFRASTRUCTURE.

  • WHAT ARE AUTO MAJORS PURSUING ?DAIMLER.CHRYSLERLIQUIFIED HYDROGEN - NECAR 4COMPRESSED HYDROGEN - NECAR 4aMETHANOL- NECAR 5 & JEEP COMMANDERMETAL HYDRIDE & - CHRYSLER NATRIUM SODIUM BOROHYDRIDE( A MODIFIED MERCEDES - BENZ A - CLASS WILL RUN ON COMP. H2 IN 2004)

  • TOYOTACOMPRESSED HYDROGEN-FCHV (KLUGER V)HONDACOMPRESSED HYDROGEN-FCXGMCOMPRESSED HYDROGEN-HydroGen 3(ACHIEVED HIGHEST STACK POWER DENSITY OF 1.75

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