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- 1. BEOWULFHonors English IVMr. Wardlow
2. Background of BeowulfAlthough Beowulf is consideredEnglish literature, it is not set inEnglandGermanic tribes invaded present-day England in the fifth-century AD;they brought their stories with them 3. Germanic TribesAngles, Saxons, and Jutes 4. Who is Beowulf?Beowulf is a great warrior who comes to the aid of a groupof people whose lives are in jeopardy. Later in his life, hebecomes king. 5. Where is Beowulf from?Beowulf is a Geatwarrior who crosses thesea to come to the aid ofthe Danes.Beowulf later returns toSweden to succeed hisuncle as king of theGeats.The Geats are frompresent-day Sweden. 6. Major Issues of BeowulfAbove is a picture of the only surviving manuscript of Beowulf. 7. Beowulf: Setting Issues The narrative is set in pre-Christian past.However, England had become Christian bythe time it was composed Settinglate 5th to early 6th century (400-500) AD Composition datemost scholars believethat it was composed sometime between 8thand 10th century (700-900) AD Because of these facts, there are elementsof Christianity and paganism in Beowulf 8. Beowulf: Major IssuesAs we read and discussBeowulf, you should alsoconsider these issues 9. Think about What is the attitude ofthepoet to Beowulf? Is this poem a monstertale? Based on your reading ofBeowulf, what qualitiesorvalues did the Anglo-Saxons admire? Is Beowulf a type of 10. Think about Symbols and their importance. What do thefollowing items symbolize? Herot Grendel (esp. the claw and the head) the lair of Grendel and his mother the dragons hoard 11. BeowulfCritical Terms 12. Consider for the following as youread Epic: a long narrative poem about theadventures of a heroAlliteration: repetition of consonant sounds.Anglo-Saxon poetry consists of two half linesfeaturing alliteration separated by a caesuraCaesura: pause in a line of poetry, usually inthe middle of the line 13. Critical Terms (cont.)Wyrd: Anglo-Saxon word which refers to a mixture offate and happening in BeowulfWergild: literally, man-payment, a term referring to thepayment made to the family of a slain kinsman intendedto prevent them from taking revenge against the slayerDom: refers to the fame which pagan Germanic heroessought to gain for themselves on earth 14. Critical Terms (cont.)Kenning: a poetic device used by Anglo-Saxonpoets. It is a descriptive expression, oftenmetaphoric, employing compound terms; e.g. ring-giver for king, heavens candle for sun, andwhale-road for sea.Comitatus: a Latin term describing the militarybonds for Anglo-Saxon society. The comitatusconsisted of a lord and his warriors who show fierceloyalty to him. The lord-warrior bonds werecemented by gift-giving. 15. Before Beowulf was written it was not only spoken, itwas sung! 16. The Anglo-Saxon tradition of thescopThe scops (pronounced shopes) wereboth composers and storytellers whotraveled from court to court and village tovillage. People would gather around tohear the stories recited and chanted andsung. Simply put, the scops wereentertainers. 17. The EpicCharacteristics 18. The following are characteristics ofmost epics:Hero, usually male, is of noble birth; often oflegendary importanceHeros character traits reflect ideals of hissocietyHero performs courageous and sometimessuperhuman deedsAction of the hero often determine the fate ofthe nation or a group of people 19. The following arecharacteristics of most epics(cont.): The setting is vast in scope, often involving more than one nation The poet uses formal and serious language Major characters often deliver long speeches 20. The following are characteristicsof most epics (cont.):Plot complicated by supernatural beings andmay involve a dangerous journey throughforeign landsThe poem reflects timeless values such ascourage and honorThe poem treats universal themes such asgood and evil or life and death 21. Connect Beowulf to your lifeTurn to p. 30 in your textRead the Connect to Your Life paragraphThink of the qualities that make peopleheroes in your life 22. And now .Beowulf! 23. a powerful monster livingin the darknessOpen your book to p. 33 24. Grendel Review ll. 1-29 What are the origins of Grendel? What kind of inverse values and ethics does Grendel embody?Anglo-Saxon literary culture, all monstrous beingsdescended from Cain, perhaps reflecting the strongtaboo against kin-slaying so important in Anglo-Saxonlaw and culture. 25. The Danes Review ll. 15 ff Who is the king ofthe Danes? What is Herot? 26. What doesGrendel have for breakfast? 27. A couple of Danish! 28. Grendel attacks! Review ll. 30 ff. Howmany mendoes he eat? How long doesHerot remaindeserted? What is Hrothgarsreaction? 29. Grendel attacks! Describe what Why does HrothgarsReviewGrendel council not attackdid inll. 89 ff. Hrothgar order to s throne? drive away Grendel. 30. Grendel interlude 31. The strongest of the Geats Review ll. 104 ff. Beowulf and thirteen of his bravest warriors cross the sea to aid the Danes Who is Wulfgar? 32. Beowulf arrives in the land of theDanes Review ll. 141-93 Beowulf boasts! How will he fightGrendel? Who ultimately willdecide the winner ofthe fight betweenGrendel andBeowulf? Who is Edgetho? 33. Beowulf arrives in the land of theDanes Review ll. 190 ff. Hrothgar came toEdgethos rescue bysending treasures toEdgethosenemies, theWulfings, thusbuying peacebetween the tribes 34. The BattleBeowulf vs. 35. Beowulf battles Grendel! See ll. 233-42. How isGrendel described; how isHerot different this time? See ll. 248-57. How isGrendel described? Whatare his emotions? See ll. 257-59. What will beGrendels fate? Review ll. 268 ff. Thebattle has begun. How areBeowulf and Grendeldescribed? 36. The battle rages on! Why are the weapons ofBeowulfs men useless?(see ll. 290-300) How does Beowulfmortally woundGrendel?(see ll. 337-340) Grendel goes to die(l. 352) 37. Grendels MotherAnother monster lives, bent onrevenge! 38. Grendels mother wantsrevenge!Hrothgars best friend is killed byGrendels mother! (l. 410) 39. The lair of Grendels mother Ll. 397-409describe Grendelsmother L. 410-11Grendelsmother killsHrothgars bestfriend Aeschere Ll. 434-39: How dothe forest animalsreact to the lake? Ll. 444-49:Hrothgars request 40. The Battle with GrendelsMotherBeowulf meets his match! 41. Battle with Grendels Mother L. 455: How long has she ruled the lakewhere she lives? Ll. 458-69:the struggle b/w Beowulf andGrendels mother, inside a battle-hall L. 480: Hrunting Ll. 513-25 Beowulf kills Grendelsmother Ll. 526-45: Beowulf mutilates Grendelsbody 42. The Battle with GrendelsMother Ll. 549-55: the old Dane warriorsthought Beowulf was dead Ll. 562 ff.: sword used todecapitate Grendel dissolves; Ll. 578 ff.: Beowulf leaves thetreasure at the lair; brings backGrendels head to Herot as atrophy 43. Beowulfs Last BattleAnd the death of Beowulf 44. Dragon interlude 45. Beowulfs Last Battle Ll. 606-11: Beowulf isstill boasting! Ll. 613-32: Beowulfdescribes how he willfight the dragon Ll. 665-70: Beowulf in afight for his life! Ll. 691-96: Beowulfsfollowers flee Ll. 708-35: Wiglafscolds the fleeingwarriors 46. The Death of a HeroBut the legend lives on! 47. The Death of Beowulf Beowulf Ll. 741-42: Does Beowulf have an strikes at heir?the dragonagain! L. 745: How long was BeowulfBeowulf king?is mortally wounded Ll. 753: a reference to Anglo- in the Saxon views about kin-slaying neck. Ll. 754-61: What does BeowulfWiglafask of Wiglaf?strikes thedragon Ll. 764-94: Wiglaf enters the and it isfinally dragons tower where all itskilled. treasures were stored 48. The Dragons Treasure Ll. 764-94 Why is this sceneimportant? TheDragon hoards all the treasure which goes against the idea of comitatus. Now that the dragon is dead, all the treasures can be shared 49. Death comes for Beowulf l. 801: Do you think Wiglaf is a Christian? ll. 805-19; 824-27: Beowulfs dying words l. 811: Wiglaf will be the next king ll. 812-19: 50. Christian elements inBeowulf Review thedeath ofBeowulf sceneand findelements ofChristianity. Share with theclass! 51. Wiglaf to the Beowulfs men L. 849: Wiglaf callsBeowulfs men who ranLeadcowardsyour life Ll. 851-62: Wiglaf tells thebrande men who ran that they havedishonored and disgraced d with the entire communitydisgrace L. 865: Beowulfs men weep ! as they see his body restingon the sand 52. Mourning Beowulf ll. 874-75: Beowulfs ashesare placed in the tomb Ll. 880-83: All the treasuresthat were gained from thedragons lair were buried inthe sand Ll. 885 ff.: Twelve of thegreatest Geats rode and toldof Beowulfs greatness, said no better king hadever lived, no other mandeserved as much praise 53. BeowulfLiterary Devices Activity 54. Find these examples inBeowulfAlliterationKenningCaesuraHyperbole 55. Literary devices definedAlliteration the repetition of consonant sounds atthe beginning of a word.Kenning metaphorical compound words orphrases substituted for simple nouns.Caesura a pause or break in a line of poetry.Hyperbole a figure of speech in which the truth isexaggerated for effect.