bengal gram by shaikh wasim
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PROFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANANA STATE AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE , RAJENDRA NAGAR
PROFESSOR JAYASHANKAR TELANANA STATE AGRICULTURE UNIVERSITY,COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE , RAJENDRA NAGARBENGAL GRAM
BYSHAIKH WASIM CHANDRAM/15-13
BENGAL GRAMBotanical Name : Cicer arientinum
Family : Leguminosae
Common Name : Chick pea, Chana
Origin : South Western Asia
IntroductionBengal Gram commonly known as 'chick pea' or gram is the most important pulse crop in India.India ranks first in terms of Bengal gram production and consumption.Andhra Pradesh show high growth rate of Bengal gram production in India.It is emerged as a cash crop in black cotton soils of Andhra Pradesh.
Origin and DistributionIt is said to be one of the oldest pulses known and cultivated from ancient times both in Asia and in Europe.Its probable place of origin lies in south western Asia (probably eastern Turkey) which is in the countries lying to the north-west of India such as Afganistan and Persia.According to De Candolle, the fact that gram gas a Sanskrit name would indicate that the crop has been under cultivation in India longer than in any other country.
Chick pea is one of the important pulse crop of the world cultivated over an area of 12.0 million hectares.Production of about 9.2 million tones of grain.The important gram growing countries are India, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Burma and Turkey. India ranks first in the world in respect of production as well as acreage followed by Pakistan.
Economic ImportancePulse crops, besides being rich in protein and some of the essential amino acids, enrich the soil through symbolic nitrogen fixation from atmosphere.It is used for human consumption as well as for feeding to animals.Fresh green leaves are used as vegetable (sag).The grains are also used as vegetable (chhole).Used for making DAL.Chick pea flour (Besan) is used in the preparation of various types of sweets.
Chick pea is considered to have medicinal effects and it is used for blood purification.It is rich in protein, carbohydrates, iron , calcium.Malic acid and oxalic acid is found in leaves ,stems of bengal gram which have medicinal properties commonly called Amb.Bengal gram leaves contain 90-90% malic acid and 4-10 % ascorbic acid.
Bengal gram and its Germination
MorphologyChick pea belongs to familyLeguminoseae.It is a small, much branched herbaceous plant rarely exceeding 60 centimeter height.The roots usually include a central strong tap root, with numerous lateral branches that spread out in all directions in the upper layer of soils. There are numerous nodules on roots.The rhizobium bacteria present in these nodules fix up atmospheric nitrogen.
Stem is generally grayish in appearance.main branches may produce numerous lateral branches.The leaves are pinnately compound, usually with one terminal leaflet.There are 9-15 pairs of leaflets.Flowers are of various colors from white to shades of pink or blue.A single plant produces about 50 to 150 pods.
A Typical Bengal gram Plant
Classification The Indian grams have been classified into two broader groups:
Kabuli or White Gram (Cicer kabulium):color of the seed: white.Seed size is bold and attractive.Weight of 100 seed is grater than 26 gm.
Desi or Brown Gram (Cicer arientinum L.):color of the seed: yellow to dark brown.Seed size is usually small.Weight of 100 seed is 17-26 gmIt is the most widely grown group.
Yield potential of kabuli is poor as compared to desi or brown gram.
GROWTH STAGES OF BENGAL GRAM
Seedling stageBranching stage
Flowering stagePod filling stage
Area & ProductionChick pea is one of the important pulse crop of the world cultivated over an area of 12.0 million hectares with a production of about 9.2 million tones of grain.Nearly 66% of the world acreage and 67% of the global chickpea production is from India alone.In India bengal gram is cultivated on 7.1 Mha ,producing 5.7 Mt with a productivity of 800 kg / ha.Madhya Pradesh with 2.6 Mha producing 2.4 mt with a productivity of 930 kg / ha ranks first in area production and productivity.National average productivity is 800kg/ha which is much less than the highest average productivity is 1.8 t/ha in egypt.
Climatic Requirement Bengal gram is subtropical crop it grows well in wide range of climates.The crop is very sensitive to excess moisture, high humidity and cloudy weather.In India it is grown as Rabi crop .Rainfall requirement : 400-700 mmThe optimum temperature varies from 24-30 C.In peninsular India where winters are warm the crop duration is short(90-110 days). Hence the productivity of bengal gram is higher under north Indian conditions.
SoilChick pea is grown on a wide range of soils from medium to heavy black soils, mixed red and black soil and alluvial soils but requires well drained aerated conditions.Optimum pH of soil is 6.0-7.5.It does not withstand water logging, saline and alkaline conditions.it is not suited to soils having a pH higher than 8.5.
Varieties Desi typeDuration Kabuli typeDuration Avrodhi150-155 daysC-104130-140 daysPant G-186125 daysL-550160 daysGaurav140-145 daysL-144140 daysUday (KP-75)140-145 daysPusa-1003130-135 daysPusa-256145-150 daysPusa-1053130-140 daysJG-315145-150 daysSadabahar145-160 daysHaryana Chana-1135-145 dayskranti130-140 daysGora Hisari140-150 daysK-850145-150 daysPratap chana90 days
-Unlike cereals high yielding photo-insensitive cultivars are not available in pulses and this appears to be the most important reasons for low productivity of pulse crops in the country. -Several improved varieties of chick pea have been evolved in different chick pea growing states.-Avarodhi and Vijay are wilt resistance type varieties.Varieties widely accepted in Andhra Pradesh are , Annegiri Jyothi Kranti BDN 9
High Yielding Varieties of Bengal Gram in IndiaStateRecommended VarietiesAndhra PradeshICCV-2, ICCV-37, ICCV-4, ICCV-10Assam KWR-108, BG-256, L-550, KPG-59GujaratPusa-319, Vijay, ICCV-4, Pusa-240, GG-1, Pusa-1053HaryanaHaryana Chana-1, GNG-469, Pusa-362, Gora Hisari, Karnal Chana, Gaurav, H-208, H-335, Pusa-1053Himachal Pradesh BBG-1, Haryana Chana-1, L-550Jammu & KashmirGNG-469, L-550, PBG-1, Haryana Chana-1KarnatakaBDN 9-3, ICCV-10, ICCV-2 Annegiri-1Punjab PBG-1, GNG-469, Haryana Chana-1, Gaurav, L-550, C-235, G-543, Pusa-1053, GPF-2, PDG-3RajasthanGNG-416, GNG-469, GNG-663, PBG-1, L-550, Pusa-256, RSG-44, Pusa-1053, PDG 84-1Tamil Nadu ICCV-10, BDN 9-3, CO-3, CO-4Uttar Pradesh KWR-108, Avrodhi, BG-256, K-850, Pant G-186, Pusa-372, Radhey, JG-315, Uday (KPG-75), Pusa-1003, Pusa-1053Madhya PradeshJG-74, JG-315, Vijay, Pusa-256, Phule G-5, Pusa-1053MaharashtraVijay, Phule G-5, Vishal, ICCV-10, Pusa-1053Orissa Radhey, ICCV-10, L-550, Pusa-372, Pusa-1003West BengalPusa-372, KWR-108, KPG-59, BG-256, Pusa-1003Bihar KWR-108, Avrodhi, BG-256, Pant G-114, Pusa-209, L-550, Pusa-1003North Eastern States KWR-108, Avrodhi, KPG-59, BG-256
Seed Selection It is recommended to use varieties which are pest and disease resistant/tolerant. Stress is being given to on-farm seed production and preservation. Bengal gram seed can be self produced by farmers themselves or purchased from reliable source. It is highly economical to produce one's own seed, without losing vigour of variety by proper roguing of off types, 3 times in a crop season namely, prior to flowering, at flowering and finally, at near maturity.
For seed purpose identify vigorously growing healthy plants, free from insect pests and diseases. Use appropriate grading sieve to obtain uniformity in size and weight of seed. Sun drying of seed is essential to obtain moisture level below 9% for preservation.Kabuli types fetch more income compared to desi types. High yielding Kabuli type varieties which yield equal to desi types are available which farmers can use and take advantage of.
Pre-cultivation PracticesFor chickpea, light field preparation is required. Weed free situation is compulsory. After harvest of kharif crop prepare field with plough or cultivator (Gorru) or tractor drawn cultivator so that top soil is free from weeds and at the same time stored soil moisture is preserved to the maximum extent for crop use.Application of 2 tonnes of well decomposed FYM or compost/Ac or 0.8 tonnes of vermicompost mixed with 2 kg PSB (phosphate solubilising bacteria)/Ac is recommended at last tilling. Apply 200 litres of Sanjeevak or Jeevamrutam/Ac at sowing or immediately after, for ready availability of micro-organisms to improve soil fertility.
FIELD PREPARATION - Prepare the land to fine tilth and apply 12.5 t FYM/ha. - seed bed should be rough and seeds should be placed at 8-9 cm depth to escape wilt disease. - Chick pea is highly sensitive to soil aeration. - Very fine and compact seedbed is not good for chick pea. If requires a loose and well aerated seedbed. -Mould Board plough can be used for ploughing. -9 tine tractor drawn or 3 tine animal drawn cultivators can be used in field preparation.
SEED AND SOWING
Peninsular India = first fort night of Octobernorthern India = second fortnight of OctoberDelay beyond this period results in conspicuous reduction in yield.Early sowing of chick pea results in excessive vegetative growth and poor setting of pods. The crop may be sown by seed drill or local plough at a row spacing of 30-40 centimeters. Seed rate- 60-75 kg/ ha (Desi), 80-100 kg/ha (Kabuli)- Seed treatment with Thiram or Carbendazim (Bavistin) before sowing.
Cropping System Chick pea is sown after the harvest of kharif crops. Chick pea in rotation with cereal crops help in controlling soil borne diseases.
Kharif fallow-chick pea (in barani are