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  • BENEFITSANDCHALLENGESOFTHEALGALBIOFUELSINDUSTRY

    KimberlyOgden,ChemicalEngineering

  • Why Biofuels from Algae

    5090%Otherbiomass

    450%Lipidbiomass

    Rapidgrowthrate Efficientphotosynthesis Noheterotrophictissues Double612hoursHighoilcontent 450%nonpolarlipids 1045%higherenergy/gdw thancarbohydratefeedstocks

    Biomassharvested 100%Harvestinterval

    24/7,notseasonally

  • NAABBTeam $49MDOEproject(2010 2013)

  • Paddlewheel Runsdayandnight

    Energyintensive Radiatesheattothe

    nightsky NotProductiveincold

    weather Nothydrodynamic

    design Algaesettlestothe

    bottom Accumulatesbacteria,

    invadersandgrazers HighOPEX HighCAPEX

  • AzCATI

  • 7

    Solarpumpingsystempaybackperiod2years

    Efficientharvesting Lesspredators

    AridReactorSystem

  • Harvesting

    Current bottlenecks to cost effective production of biofuels from algae traditional is centrifuge

    Need to concentrate from 1 g/L to 40 or 100 g/L prior to extraction

    Electrocoagulation Filtration AcousticFocusing

  • CostEffective?

    BaseCase

    Basedonouranalysis Nevercanbecosteffective

    OpenPond Centrifuge Wet

    Extract

    TraditionalConversionProcessestoJetandDiesel

    LEACoProducts(AnimalFeed)

    PretreatmentofCrudeLipid

  • Conversion Lipid Extracts to Fuels

  • Feeding Results

    Type of Animal Tested

    Performance Digestibility Value

    RuminantsLambs, Cattle*

    *Biomass provided by DARPA (GA)

    PalatableGrowth, histology and blood metabolites similar to soybean -lambs

    Supplementation of LEA does not impair fiber digestion Similar to cottonseed and soybean meal

    Value of LEA in relation to soybean meal is ~ $160 US

    NonruminantsPigs

    Reduction in growthBlood not affected

    AquacultureRed drum,Shrimp

    LEA is a suitable replacement for traditional protein feeds for fish and shrimp production

    Excellent but minerals of concern

  • FeedValue

  • CostEffective?

    NAABBImprovedCase

    Basedonouranalysis 100%ProbabilityofSuccesswith40%DecreaseinCAPEXandOPEX

    ARIDPond ElectroCoagulation

    TraditionalConversionProcessestoJetandDiesel

    PretreatmentofCrudeOil

    HydrothermalLiquefactionWholeBiomass

  • Combined HTL & CHG Conversion of Whole Algae

    HTL

    HYD

    ROTREAT

    FRACTIONATE

    CHG

    HTLBiooil

    HTLEffluentWater

    HydrotreatedOil

    Jet Diesel Heavy

    FractionatedOil

    CHGEffluentWater

    WholeAlgaeFeedstock

  • Chemical/Physical Characterization of Jet Fuel from HTL Conversion

  • AISIM=NAABBAlgalIntegratedSimulationModeling

    GraphicInformationSystemsBasedResourceAssessmentModel

    BiomassAssessmentTool(BAT)

    LifeCycleAssessmentGREETandSimaPro

    FinancialFeasibilityAnalysisFarmlevelAlgalRiskSimulationModel(FARM)

    StatisticalDataAnalysisofFieldDataAppliedProductionAnalysis(APA)

    TechnoeconomicAnalysisHarmonizedTechnoEconomicModeland

    EnergyLimitedModelofAlgalBiofuelProduction

    ScalingandLogisticsofAlgaeProductionFacilitiesAlgalLogisticsModel(ALM)

    MeasuresofSustainabilityGeneratedbyAISIM

    RiskAdjustedProfitProb.ofSuccessCAPEX/OPEXGHGEmissionsNetEnergyLandUseMarginalCostWaterUseNeeds

  • Fractionalreductionsintotalcostsforproducingalgaecrudeoilforthe

    NAABBinnovations

    0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0.6

    0.7

    0.8

    0.9

    1

    EC ARID HTL GMO

  • LCAAnalysisFeedstock GreenhouseGasEmissions

    (kgCO2eq /kgfeedstock)

    Algae (this work) 0.1 4.4Corn 0.3 0.4Soybeans 0.4 0.5Jatropha 0.3Camelina [54] 0.1 0.3

    UOPEcofining Processtojetfuelordiesel HarvestingandExtraction(H&E)UnitOperations LandUseChangeinLargeScaleAlgaeCultivation

  • Contact:KimberlyOgdenDepartmentofChemicalandEnvironmentalEngineering

    UniversityofArizonaTucson,ArizonaUSA

    ogden@email.arizona.edu

  • OpportunitiesforCollaboration

    Productionofalgalbiomassforavarietyofapplications Fuel Feed HighvalueProducts

    Cultivationofgeneticallymodifiedalgae

    Designandimplementationofintegrated,controlledsystemsforcultivation,harvesting,andconversion.

    Optimizationofalgalproductivityinimpairedwaters

    Culturediagnosticsusingmolecularmarkers

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