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Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Hamdard Institute of Information Technology Hamdard University

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab ManualFall 2010Student's Name :_______________________________ Final Grade / Marks : Signature :

___________________________

______________________________________

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

LAB EXPERIMENT # 1OBJECTIVE To study about Electrical variables and electrical symbols To study about Digital Multi meter To study about Resistor Color Coding

APPARATUS Digital Multi meter Power supply Probes Power supply unit

Theory

Some of Electrical / Electronic Symbols

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Some of Electrical / Electronic Variables

Digital MultimeterA multimeter , also known as a volt/ohm meter or VOM, is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter may include features such as the ability to measure voltage, current and resistance. Multimeters may use analog or digital circuits analog multimeters and digital multimeters (often abbreviated DMM or DVOM.)

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Connection of DMM

Using Multimeter as Ampere meter

Using Multimeter as Volt meter

Using Multimeter as OHM meter

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Color CodesResistor, capacitor and inductor It is sometimes not obvious whether a color coded component is a resistor, capacitor, or inductor, and this may be deduced by knowledge of its circuit function, physical shape or by measurement.

Color Code Chart

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Resistor values are always coded in ohms ( symbol ), capacitors in picofarads (pF), and inductors in micro henries (H). band A is first significant figure of component value band B is the second significant figure band C is the decimal multiplier band D if present, indicates tolerance of value in percent (no color means 20%) For example, a resistor with bands of yellow, violet, red, and gold will have first digit 4 (yellow in table below), second digit 7 (violet), followed by 2 (red) zeros: 4,700 ohms. Gold signifies that the tolerance is 5%, so the real resistance could lie anywhere between 4,465 and 4,935 ohms.

ProcedureStep-1: Hold one of the given resistors in such a way that closest bands come in left side. Step-2: Read ad record the value of resistor in column A of table-1 by observing colors from left side to right side. Note: The colors of first bands I & II indicate significant figures in ohms, while the color of third band indicates the multiplying factor. Step-3: Read and record the tolerance value in column B of table-1 by observing the fourth band. Note: The color of fourth band indicates the percentage tolerance. Incase if band four is not there (that is no color) the tolerance is assumed to be + 20 %. Step-4: Measure the resistance value with the help of Digital Multi Meter (DMM), and record the value in column C of table-1. Step-5: Calculate and record the difference of calculated and measured resistance values in column D of tale-1. Step-6: Take another resistor and repeat the procedure from step-1 to step-5.

Precautions Observe the colors of the bands carefully. Read the values of color code attentively.

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Table 1S.No 1 2 3 4 5 Calculated Resistance Resistance Tolerance % Measured Resistance Difference of Resistance

Conclusionary Questions:Q1:____________________________________________________________________________ Ans: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Q2: ____________________________________________________________________________ Ans: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

Remarks :

Date:___________________________

Signature:___________________________ End Of Lab # 1

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

LAB EXPERIMENT # 2OBJECTIVE To verify the Characteristics of OHMS LAW

APPARATUS Digital Multi meter Bread Board Power supply Probes 1k, 12k and 27k resistors

TheoryOhms law states that Voltage is directly proportional to Current if the resistance and temperature is kept constant. Also, current is inversely proportional to resistance which means if the resistance is decreased, the current increases. Mathematically, V = I R or I = V / R.

Voltage Divider Circuit

Procedure1. Connect the circuit as shown in above figure with R2 = 12k. 2. Apply the set of voltages as specified in table on next page. 3. Note the change in current and record observed values in table corresponding to each value of voltage. 4. Plot the graph between Voltage and Current graph sheet 1. 5. Repeat the entire experiment with resistor R2 = 27k, observe readings in table and plot the graph between Voltage and Current on graph sheet 2.

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Table 1 Voltages0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Current with 12k

Current with 27k

Conclusionary Questions: After Plotting graphs :Q1:____________________________________________________________________________ Ans: ___________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Q2: ____________________________________________________________________________ Ans: ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Remarks : Date:___________________________

Signature:___________________________ End Of Lab # 2

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Graph Sheet 1 for 12k resistor

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Graph Sheet 2 for 27k resistor

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

LAB EXPERIMENT # 3OBJECTIVE To observe the change in RT (Total Resistance) ,as resistance placed in Series and Parallel configuration

APPARATUS Digital Multi meter Bread Board Required resistances as mentioned in Schematics Plain Paper

TheoryAs resistances are placed in series combination, RT = R1 + R2 + Rn . In other words total resistance is sum of all resistances connected. and As Resistances are placed in Parallel Combination, 1/RT = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/Rn . In other words total resistance is reciprocal of all the resistances connected.

Parallel Combination Parallel and Series Connection

Series Combination

Procedure Draw the schematic in respective area as provided in the lab Using Table - 1 place the values on the mentioned cells. Calculate the RT via formula and place it in its dedicated cell. Measure the RT and place it in its dedicated cell. Calculate the tolerance and Place it in last cell. Repeat the above procedure for both Parallel and Test Schematic.

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Schematic of a Series circuit

Schematic of Parallel Circuit

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Schematic of Test Circuit

Table 1 Combination Series Parallel Test Circuit Remarks : Values of RT Tolerance Range Obtained

R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 Calculated Measured Color

Date:___________________________

Signature:___________________________ End Of Lab # 3

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

LAB EXPERIMENT # 4OBJECTIVE To verify Kirchhoffs Voltage Law- (KVL).

APPARATUS Digital Multi meter Bread Board Required resistances as mentioned for Groups. DC Power Supply Probes

TheoryKirchhoffs Voltage Law states that Algebraic sum of all the voltages around any closed path is zero,or we can say that sum of all voltage drops equal to to the source voltages. For KVL equation is VS V 1 V 2 V 3 V n = 0 or can be expressed by VS = V1 + V2 + V3 + Vn To verify this law and to have multiple voltage drops we will use a series circuit.

Schematic for KVL

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Procedure Arrange your circuit on Bread board and Set Power supply at 10 volts. Using Ohm's law find out the voltages drops across each resistor and place in calculated section of Table 1, and verify through Equation. Use Rough work area for Calculations, a dedicated page next to this page. Consider V4 as VS Now using DMM find out voltages across each resistance and place it in measured Section of Table 1, and verify through Equation. Calculate the percentage of any possible instrumentation Error. Repeat the above steps by adjusting Power Supply at 14 volts and Using Table 2.

Table 1 VS = V4 = 10 volts Calculated Measured Use Rough work area for any Calculations R1 ab R2 bc R3 cd Placing in Equation Percentage of any Error -------------

VS V1 V2 V3 = 0

Table 2

VS = V4 = 14 volts Calculated Measured

R1 ab

R2 bc

R3 cd

Placing in Equation

Percentage of any Error -------------

VS V1 V2 V3 = 0

Use Rough work area for any Calculations

Explain Error in tis Experiment:

Basic Electrical Engineering

Lab Manual F10

Rough Work Area

Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________

Basic Electrical Engineering