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  • Slide 1
  • Slide 2
  • Becoming A Psychological Detective Psychology, Research, and You Chapter 1 Section 1 Psychology, Research, and You Chapter 1 Section 1
  • Slide 3
  • Chapter in Perspective Describe the methods psychologists use to gather information about the numerous problems and areas they research Examine the historical development and growth of psychology Look at the different types of jobs that psychologists currently hold Describe the methods psychologists use to gather information about the numerous problems and areas they research Examine the historical development and growth of psychology Look at the different types of jobs that psychologists currently hold
  • Slide 4
  • WHY DO WE NEED TO LEARN ABOUT PSYCHOLOGY?
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  • Be a Knowledgeable Consumer The results and claims of psychological research fill our daily lives, so we need to know how to evaluate the accuracy and credibility of these claims.
  • Slide 6
  • Question: How much electric shock, from 0 to 450 volts, would you administer to someone as part of a psychology experiment?
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  • Stanley Milgram (1974) Conducted a study in which people were asked to administer shocks to others in what they believed was an investigation of how people learned. No shocks were actually delivered. Participants continued to administer shocks even when they believed that the shocks could be harmful. Conducted a study in which people were asked to administer shocks to others in what they believed was an investigation of how people learned. No shocks were actually delivered. Participants continued to administer shocks even when they believed that the shocks could be harmful.
  • Slide 8
  • Obedience to Authority Can be incredibly powerful 1978 Jonestown, Guyana Jim Jones Persuaded his followers to give cyanide-laced Kool-Aid to their children and then poison themselves (918 total died) http://abcnews.go.com/Health/slideshow/jonestown-massacre- anniversary-17728596 http://abcnews.go.com/Health/slideshow/jonestown-massacre- anniversary-17728596 Can be incredibly powerful 1978 Jonestown, Guyana Jim Jones Persuaded his followers to give cyanide-laced Kool-Aid to their children and then poison themselves (918 total died) http://abcnews.go.com/Health/slideshow/jonestown-massacre- anniversary-17728596 http://abcnews.go.com/Health/slideshow/jonestown-massacre- anniversary-17728596
  • Slide 9
  • THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY
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  • What is psychology? Psychology is the science of behavior (both human and animal) and mental processes. It also includes dreams, daydreams, and other inner experiences. Psychology is the science of behavior (both human and animal) and mental processes. It also includes dreams, daydreams, and other inner experiences.
  • Slide 11
  • Psychology as a Science Psychology provides the tools we need to answer questions about a wide range of issues including IQ testing, problems in learning, ethics in research, and countless other issues.
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  • Becoming a Psychological Detective We need to be clear about what happened to determine why and how it happened Asking and answering these questions can provides tools to answer questions about other situations. Takes practice! We need to be clear about what happened to determine why and how it happened Asking and answering these questions can provides tools to answer questions about other situations. Takes practice!
  • Slide 13
  • Sample Questions: Will most people administer a 450-volt shock to another person as part of a study of learning? How strong is obedience to authority? Will most people administer a 450-volt shock to another person as part of a study of learning? How strong is obedience to authority?
  • Slide 14
  • A Barrage of Info We are bombarded by information from newspapers, radio, television, family and friends, and advertisements on a daily basis designed to influence our opinion, persuade us to buy products, entertain us, and/or inform us about the world.
  • Slide 15
  • Sample Headlines: Miracle Happy Pill Banishes the Blues Youll Read 200% Faster with Better Comprehension Recovered Memories Point to a History of Abuse Hidden Messages in Rock Songs Linked to Suicides Three-Year-Old Psychic Predicts the Future Miracle Happy Pill Banishes the Blues Youll Read 200% Faster with Better Comprehension Recovered Memories Point to a History of Abuse Hidden Messages in Rock Songs Linked to Suicides Three-Year-Old Psychic Predicts the Future
  • Slide 16
  • Psychological Techniques To evaluate information, psychologists have found certain techniques to be helpful in thinking critically. We will explore these techniques in the next section, but lets consider a common alternative: folk wisdoms. To evaluate information, psychologists have found certain techniques to be helpful in thinking critically. We will explore these techniques in the next section, but lets consider a common alternative: folk wisdoms.
  • Slide 17
  • Folk Wisdoms Usually presented in the form of a proverb. Folk wisdom provides explanations for every event as well as the exact opposite event so that they can never be proven wrong. Hence, folk wisdom provides answers for all situations but actually explains none. Usually presented in the form of a proverb. Folk wisdom provides explanations for every event as well as the exact opposite event so that they can never be proven wrong. Hence, folk wisdom provides answers for all situations but actually explains none.
  • Slide 18
  • Examples List A Look before you leap. You cant teach an old dog new tricks. Out of sight, out of mind. Two heads are better than one. A penny saved is a penny earned. Opposites attract. List B People who hesitate are lost. Its never too late to learn. Absence makes the heart grow fonder. If you want something done right, do it yourself. Nothing ventured, nothing gained. Birds of a feather flock together.
  • Slide 19
  • Psychological Research Psychologist are trained to: - ask good questions - gather useful information - arrive at appropriate conclusions - develop and ask further questions based on the information collected. There are right and wrong ways to conduct research. Psychologist are trained to: - ask good questions - gather useful information - arrive at appropriate conclusions - develop and ask further questions based on the information collected. There are right and wrong ways to conduct research.
  • Slide 20
  • EVALUATING INFO
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  • Spiritualism A belief in the supernatural Popular after WWI on both sides of Atlantic People would hold sances and hire mediums to contact the spirit world to communicate with the dead loved ones. A belief in the supernatural Popular after WWI on both sides of Atlantic People would hold sances and hire mediums to contact the spirit world to communicate with the dead loved ones.
  • Slide 22
  • Arthur Conan Doyle Creator of Sherlock Holmes- England 1920s Became deeply interested in spiritualism after the death of his son in WWI. Believed he had spoken with his dead son on several occasions. Creator of Sherlock Holmes- England 1920s Became deeply interested in spiritualism after the death of his son in WWI. Believed he had spoken with his dead son on several occasions.
  • Slide 23
  • Fairies Found? May 1920-Report claimed fairies had been photographed by two young girls which confirmed Doyles belief in spiritualism. He rejected the possibility of fraud because the girls were young and did not know how to use photographic equipment even though one had worked in photographic shop. May 1920-Report claimed fairies had been photographed by two young girls which confirmed Doyles belief in spiritualism. He rejected the possibility of fraud because the girls were young and did not know how to use photographic equipment even though one had worked in photographic shop.
  • Slide 24
  • Confirmation? In 1921, Doyle presented the results of his investigation in a book, The Coming of Fairies. His authoritative statements led many people to believe that the photographs were genuine which led to other people writing to him about similar experiences. In 1921, Doyle presented the results of his investigation in a book, The Coming of Fairies. His authoritative statements led many people to believe that the photographs were genuine which led to other people writing to him about similar experiences.
  • Slide 25
  • Fairy Hoax Modern technology reveals that the fairies were cardboard cutouts from a childrens book suspended by nearly invisible threads.
  • Slide 26
  • Question? Why did the famous author of the most well-known detective stories fall for such a hoax? Before he had seen the photographs he was already convinced of the existence of the spiritual realm. Why did the famous author of the most well-known detective stories fall for such a hoax? Before he had seen the photographs he was already convinced of the existence of the spiritual realm.
  • Slide 27
  • Bias beliefs that interfere with objectivity Bias can - cloud our observations - influence the questions we ask - determine the methods we use - influence our interpretation of the data we gather. beliefs that interfere with objectivity Bias can - cloud our observations - influence the questions we a

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