baumann (review of- by e.m. loeb) : das doppelte geschlecht

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  • 7/30/2019 BAUMANN (review of- by E.M. Loeb) : das doppelte Geschlecht

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    1162 Am eric an Anthropologist [58, 19561Kina rite. However, in so intuitive a critique it is a question as to how much wasread into t he dra m a an d wh at would have been Eberles reaction on location. Anotherim po rta nt contribution is the correlation of hun ting cultures w ith realistic dance styles,agrarian cultures with abstract styles. This idea is emphasized repeatedly in the dis-cussion of th e Selknam R16keten rite (267,277, 282, 307), and also brought up inconnection with the Aranda of Australia (426, 479). The theory is plausible enoughan d could be supported from ma ny parts of the world, b u t it hard ly w arran ts a stat e-m ent to th e effect th at ab stra ct features of the K16keten prov e agrarian deriv ation(268). A t times, valid stylistic distinctions are incorporated into questionable chronol-ogies, such as th e proposed developm ent from en actmen t of the self to rhy thm ic mimeto realistic en actmen t of a role (29, 494).This monumental work leaves the reader with a mixed regret and gratification:regre t because i t w as impossible for the theater expert to report any of these enact-m ents as an eye witness; gratification because the anthropologists did record th em inthe nick of time a nd with sufficient detail for int erp reta tion b y a specialist, an d becausean ex pert took the trouble to decipher th e theatrical patter ns and meanings.Das Dojpelte Geschlecht: Ethnologische Studien aur Bisexualitdt in Ritus und Mythos.HERM A BAUM ANN.erlin: Dietrich Reimer, 1955. 420 pp., 1 fig., 5 maps, 1chart. $10.00.

    Reviewed by EDWINM. LOEBUniversity of Californ ia, BerkeleyHermann S. Baumann is known as an Africanist, and is co-author of the compre-hensive volume Volkerkunde von Af rica , 1940. I n the present book, which has taken adecade of compilation, Baumann has branched out to cover the world-wide migrationof what he considers a complex of tra its occurring in th e regions of Archaic C ultures,and diffusing to neighboring areas. The Archaic Cultures of Thurnwald and Bau-man n are no t confined to E gyp t and its migrations of culture, as with Elliot Sm ith andPerry, b ut apply to the entire Mediterranean an d extend outward through m igrations

    of certain select traits of culture. Baumann brings these traits to the New World aswell as to the Far East and the Pacific Islands. These traits include megaliths,the Divine K ing, as well as the sexual trai ts of world p arent s, an d the world egg, theworld giant, a nd bisexual ideas (bisexual gods, bisexual ances tral spirits, t he Plato nicmotive of cut ting i n half a bisexual being, bisexual souls, ritu al chan ge of sex, etc.)(p . 374). Diffusion map s are in color an d of excellent design, w ith tribes a nd tra itsfully listed. The maps show the diffusion of the above listed tr aits, with t he exceptionof Divine Kingship.The present volume will replace Das Zweigeschlechtewesen (Th e Two-sexed Being),1928, y J. Winthuis, who started with Australia (where, according to Baumann, thetwo-sexed being actually does not exist) and pursued his subject from t he ev olutio narystandpoint. Baumann deals with the diffusion of myths and ideas from higher centersof culture.T h e central them e of this book is th at people who hav e been influenced b y thereligions of Archaic Cultures, b u t who hav e not as yet been converted to th e later ,intensely patr iarch al religions, believe th at neither gods nor m an are com plete unlessthey have the magical powers of both the male and the female. This belief partlysupersedes th e sexual antagonism of more primitive peoples, who ar e obsessed w ith t heidea that everything female (especially female blood) is contaminating.

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    Book Reviews 1163Africanists will find much proof confirming this bisexual theory. For example,in my field work among the Kuanyama Ambo Bantu of Southwest Africa, I found bothDivine Kingship and the relics of a megalithic culture. The Kuanyama have a godcalled Kalunga who usually is male, but is spoken of as the mother of the people.The culture hero, He Who Was Self-created, was born from an egg. In former days,the royal maidens crawled under the legs of the king or his sons, making sexual con-tact in symbolic jus primae noctis, and thus both obtained special powers from theopposite sex. Today, girls undergoing puberty become possessed with warrior spirits.In the boys circumcision, the boys are called brides. When medicine men are initiatedthey must have contact with homosexuals, and often become homosexuals.Baumann does not differentiate between the inspired and noninspired shaman,as did Carlyle May recently, writing on glossolalia (A.A. 58, No. 1:91) ; it is only theformer who often are berdaches, and then only in the Old World. He believes thatmoieties were influenced by the bisexual idea (as the Chinese Yin and Yang idea). He

    thinks that moieties first were connected with clans and were exogamous; later, inmany places influenced by conquest, one moiety become the male moiety of the con-querors, and the other the lower and female moiety. To keep relative positions, themoieties had to become endogamous. Unfortunately, the book contains no map ofmoieties. Most moieties of Africa, including the Herero and Masai, are endogamous.Baumann was unable to use twins as a proof of his theory because he did not dif-ferentiate in the treatment of twins of like and unlike sex. The peculiar regard whichthe Archaic Culture people hold towards twins of unlike sex, combining both themale and the female in one personality but born as two individuals, is a valuablepoint that Baumann could have used to confirm his theory (see Loeb, E. M., TheTwin Cult in the Old and New World, Rivet Anniversary Volume, Mexico City: inpress).These are small details. Readers from all professions who deal with mythology andethnic psychology will find the present book indispensable.Adam with Arrows: Inside Aboriginal New Guinea. COLINSIMPSON. ew York: Fred-

    Reviewed by JAMES B. WATSON, lziwersity o j WashingtonColin Simpson is an Australian free-lance journalist and writer who has in the last

    decade concerned himself with native peoples of Australia and, more recently, Papuaand New Guinea. To date three books have appeared using the figure Adam as apart of the title. The present one is the second of the series so far published in Australia,the first of two Adam books on New Guinea.The background work for Adam with Arrows is compounded of travel (includingbrief visits to several remoter parts of New Guinea) and extensive tape-recorded inter-views with old Territory hands and some of the present and former administrativepersonnel of the Department of District Services and Native Affairs. Simpson wenton two patrols, one into so-called Kukukuku country in Morobe District, and one fromWabag in the Western Highlands District. Both areas are in the vanguard of Australiancontact and control, which is essentially the subject of the book. Simpson had officialpermission to read Patrol reports; he has also read the principal explorers memoirs,and anthropological reports such as Beatrice Blackwoods on Kukukuku.The book is rich in the legend-making material of the Australian penetration ofNew Guinea. In fact, the book itself is a part of that very active cultural process, for

    erick A. Praeger, Inc., 1955. 240 pp., 51 plates (10 in color), 5 maps. $5.00.