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    |

    Sulzer MetcoDiamond-Like Coatings for Plastic

    Molding

    6000 North Bailey Avenue Suite 9 Amherst, NY 14226 Phone: 716-270-2228 Fax: 716-270-2230

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    Sulzer Metco

    | slide 1

    DLC vs Other Surface Treatments

    Dylyn/DLC Dylyn

    Cavidur B4C Chrome Nickel Teflon WCC

    DLN N * * * *

    NAME

    DIAMOND

    LIKE

    COATING

    DIAMOND LIKE

    NANOCOMPOSITE

    COATING

    TITANIUM

    NITRIDE

    Diamond

    Black

    Electroplated

    CHROME

    Electroless

    Nickel

    Teflon

    Composite

    Tungsten

    Carbide

    Carbon

    MICROHARDNESS

    (GPa)25 18 30 23 35 8 - 12 4 - 8 10 - 12

    ROCKWELL C 85 78 90 80 95 64 - 70 40 - 60 66 - 70COEFFICIENT OF

    FRICTION AGAINST

    STEEL (DRY)

    0.12 0.07 0.1 0.4 - 0.5 0.4 - 0.5 0.2 - 0.4 0.1 - 0.3 0.2 - 0.3

    COATING

    THICKNESS (M)1 - 4 1 - 4 2 - 4 1 - 4 1 - 4 Up to 50 5 - 50 2 - 4

    570 F 750 F 840 F 1000 F 1800 F 600 F 750 F 570 F

    300 C 400 C 450 C 600 C 980 C 325 C 400 C 300 C

    350 - 430 F 350 - 430 F 480 - 660 F 500 - 950 F 500 - 950 F 120 - 175 F 120 - 175 F 440 - 480 F

    180 - 220 C 180 - 220 C 250 - 350 C 260 - 500 C 260 - 500 C 50 - 80 C 50 - 80 C 225 - 250 C1 - 5 5 - 10 1 - 5 250 41

    +++ +++ +++ ++ ++ + + ++

    SURFACE ENERGY

    (mN/m)40 - 50 20 - 40 40 - 50 40 - 42 20 - 30 46 - 53

    COATING METHOD PACVD PACVDPVD /

    PACVDPVD PVD

    Galvanic

    Plating

    Electroless

    PlatingPVD

    Properties of Other SurfaceProperties of DLC CoatingsTiN

    COATING

    TEMPERATURE

    MAX. WORKING

    TEMPERATURE

    COATING

    MATERIAL

    WEAR FACTOR

    (x 10-8 mm3/Nm)

    *Not a Sulzer Product listed for comparison purposes only.

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    Sulzer Metco

    | slide 2

    Traditional Methods of Surface Treatment

    Dicronite Dry Lube deposition of 0.000020 inch (0.5 microns) maximum

    Not a line-of-sight process

    only corrosion hindering

    Composition - modified (WS2) Tungsten Disulfide in lamellar form.

    Hardness - 1.0 - 1.5 Mohs scale.

    Co-efficient of Friction - 0.030 inclined plane method, against itself.

    Electrolysis Nickel Teflon Composite Excellent Lubricity (20 - 25% Teflon in deposit)

    Excellent release properties Lowest coefficient of friction

    Hardness: 62 Rc

    Weak adhesion to the surface

    Chrome Plating Finishing necessary on wear parts to eliminate chrome

    nodules.

    For optimized frictional and lubricating properties surface

    finish must be taken below 15 micro inches Rp

    Hardness: 68 Rc

    Edge build up a problem

    400 X

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    Sulzer Metco

    | slide 3

    DLC Coatings

    Hard amorphous carbon thin film

    very hard

    electrically insulating wear resistant

    Comprises C, H

    Carbon in sp3bonding => "Diamond-like" properties

    There are a few variants of DLC coatings

    Engineered interface layer for low film stress

    a-C:H

    DLC

    a- C:H; a- Si:O

    Hard amorphous carbon thin film

    very hard

    electrically insulating

    wear resistant

    lower friction low film stress

    Comprises C, H, Si, O

    a-C:H ~ "Diamond-like" properties

    a-Si:O ~ enhances high temperature stability

    Dylyn is a family of coatings

    Low intrinsic stress

    This is a Sulzer exclusive coating - Several US patents issued

    Dylyn

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    Sulzer Metco

    | slide 5

    Coatings Reduce Friction / Material Pickup

    RESISTANCE TO ADHESION:

    The chemically inert characteristics of diamond-like coatings dramatically reduce possibility of cold

    welding and material pickup on the surface of the tool

    TOOL

    PART

    1

    2

    F=x A

    1> 2

    0.8

    PTFE DLC TiN 52100

    Dylyn CrN

    0

    CavidurN

    Diamond Metal Carbon

    Hard Chrome

    0.1

    Nickel Teflon

    CoefficientofFriction

    0.7

    0.6

    0.5

    0.4

    0.3

    0.2

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    Sulzer Metco

    | slide 6

    Surface Engery & Wetting Behavior of Different Coatings

    lubricant fluid drop

    with constant volume,

    here water

    wetting angle

    of contact

    fluid spreads

    over the surface

    TiAlN

    TiN

    Metal

    CarbideDLC

    Dylyn

    Better Wetting Behavior

    Better Release Behavior

    Close-up of a series of

    liquid droplets on a

    Dylyn sample

    Surface energy is a

    measure of the

    affinity of a

    substance to stick tothe material.

    The lower the value,

    the less likely a

    material will weld or

    stick to a surface.

    PFTE has a surface

    energy of 18 mN/m20 - 40 40 - 42 42 - 46 46 - 53Surface Energy

    (mN/m)

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    Sulzer Metco

    | slide 7

    DLC

    TOOLPART

    Corrosive Attack

    Corrosion Test

    Dylyn

    ASTM B 117-97 Salt Spray Test

    The high density andamorphous structure of

    Diamond-Like Coatings

    inhibit the corrosive by-

    products from

    penetrating into the

    tool.TiN

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    Sulzer Metco

    | slide 8

    Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

    Equipment designed & constructed by Sulzer Metco

    Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (PACVD)process

    In-situ substrate cleaning via plasma etching

    Substrate temperature does not exceed 220C

    Maximum part dimensions must fit within a 32 diagonal,

    be less than 12 in height and weigh less than 100Kg

    Sulzer Deposition System

    Vacuum Pump

    Reactive Plasma

    Plasma Generator

    Gas Supplysuch as CH4

    Substrates

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    Sulzer Metco

    | slide 9

    Coating Penetration in Close Spaces

    PACVD coating process isnon-line of sight

    Shadowingoccurs in holes orthin slots

    During the process there is arelative gas ion density.

    As the gas ions travels into therestricted pathway; thecharged part walls attracts theoppositely charged gas ionsforming the coating.

    As the gas ions go deeper intothe restricted pathway, thereare less available until nocoating is formed.

    This reduction of coating iscalled Shadowingand thecoating forms only as deep as

    the width of the opening of therestricted pathway.

    +

    (-)

    X

    X

    Taper

    DLC Coating

    +

    +

    +

    +

    +

    + +++

    + +

    +

    +

    + +++

    +

    +++

    ++ ++ ++ +

    ++

    + + +

    +

    +

    + + +

    +

    ++

    ++ ++

    + +

    ++ ++++ ++ +

    ++

    +

    +

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    Sulzer Metco

    | slide 10

    Sulzer uses an Reactive Ion Etchingprocess to decoat diamond-like andother carbon based coating types

    Stripped finish on 8620 steel typicallychanges about 1 to 2 Ra

    This process can be used on titanium,beryllium copper and aluminum parts inaddition to steels and ceramics

    Stripped Masked Steel Sample

    Sulzer Stripping Process

    2 RaAs Coated

    3 Ra

    2.5 Ra

    Stripped

    Near Edge

    Away from edge

    Note: Chrome plated parts and small geometries may not be advisable to strip.

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    Sulzer Metco

    | slide 11

    Standard Coating

    Multi-Layer Coating

    Ti or Dylyn Adhesion Layer

    Dylyn, Me-Dylyn or DLC

    Substrate

    Substrate

    Dylyn, Me-Dylyn or DLC

    Dylyn, Me-Dylyn or DLC

    Ti or Dylyn Adhesion Layer

    Ti or Dylyn Adhesion Layer

    Characteristics

    All DLC coating have an adhesion layer

    Adhesion layer influences important coating properties

    Amount of hydrogen controls the hardness

    Multi-layer structures

    DLN interlayer acts as buffer layer, reducing stress.

    Allows for thicker total coating

    Thicker coating Longer wear life

    Multilayer coatings resist Hertzian stresses due totheir higher modulus of elasticity

    Single Layer Mulit-layer

    Stress Fracture

    Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings (DLC)

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    Sulzer Metco

    | slide 12

    Matching the Coating & Applications / Cavidur

    Benefits of Multiple Layers

    Better Adhesion

    High Fracture Toughness

    Higher Mod

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