basic networking in power point by suprabha

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Guided By:- Mass Info Vision Pvt. Ltd. Rourkela, Odisha, India Basic Networking Presented By:- Miss Suprabha sahoo Mayubhanj, Odisha, India

Author: suprabha-sahoo

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  • 1. What is computer networkingComputer networking means sharing of data &resources between two or more computer with acommunication between them. The communicationmedium can be through wires, radio waves, leased line,infra-red, optical fiber etc.The main purpose of networking is sharing of data &resources.

2. Advantages of Networking Sharing Information Sharing Hardware resources Sharing software resources Centralizing administration Pre-reserving Information Protecting Information E-mail 3. Disadvantage of Networking If fault occur in the server then all the clients are failedto access softwares from server. Network fault can cause lose of Data & resources. System open to hackers. User work dependent up on network. 4. Advantage of Networking Networking Enables:InformationSharingCentralized Administrationand Support Hardware and Software Sharing5 5. Networking Devices NIC (Network Interface Card) :- A card installed in a computer that unable the computer tocommunicate a network. All NIC implement a networking standardscalled Ethernet Every client & server must have a network interfacecard in order to be a part of network. Cable:- computers in a network are physically connected to each other usingcables. Hub/Switch:- Network cables usually does not connect computer directly to eachother. Instead of this, Each computer connected by a cable to a deviceknown as hub or switch. The hub or switch connect rest of the network.Each switch contain certain no of port typically 8,16,24 etc. Network software:-Typically server computer use a special software in order to functionefficiently & the client computer needs to have their settingconfiguration in order to access to the network.Network software is used to efficiently shar information. 6. Modem:-modem is the combination of two word modulation &demodulation. Modem is a device which convert analogsignal to digital signal & vice versa. Router:-A router is a device that forwards data packets alongnetworks. The router used to connect two or morenetworks & uses multiple paths to send & receive data.sometimes router is also called gateway. Access point:-Access point act as an interface cable network & wirelessdevice. We can also connect nodes(computer) to a accesspoint. Repeater:-Repeaters are used maintain the strength of the signalconstant. Hub, Switchs, routers are also acts as a repeater. 7. Difference Between Switch & HubHub Switch It is manageable. It is not manageable. It works on the 1st layer of It works on the 2nd layer ofOSI reference model.OSI reference model. Collision detection is turned Collision detection is noton. turned on. Operates on half Duplex Operates on full duplex mode.mode. 8. Different Modes of Communication Unicast:-one sender one receiver Multicast:- one sender multiple devices are thereceiver but not all Broadcast:-One sender all other devices are receiver. 9. CSMA/CDCarrier Sense Multiple Access With Collisiondetection(CSMA/CD) is a protocol that is implemented in bustopology. It is divided into three part:- Multiple Access:-Multiple access refers to the fact that in bus system. EachStation has access to the common cable. Carrier Sense:-It refer to the fact that each station listen to see if no otherstation are transmitting before sending. Collision Detection:-It refers to the principal of listening if other station aretransmitting While we are transmitting. 10. The OSI (Open SystemsInterconnection) Data ModelISO standard for computer networks design and functioning.Involves at least 7 layers, each playing a specific role when applications are communicating over the network. 11. OSI Layer7. Application layer6. Presentation5. Session layer4. Transport layer3. Network layer2. Data-link layer1. Physical layer 12. Physical layer:- It ensures a safe and efficient travel of data; consists of electronic circuits for data transmission etc. The physical layer defines the electrical, mechanical specification for maintaining, activating, deactivating physical link between end system.Data link layer:- It is in charge of data encapsulation under the form of packets. The data link layer defines how data is formatted for transmission how access to the network is control. 13. Network layer:- It is in charge of packets transmissionfrom a source A to destination B. Network layerprovides connectivity &path selection between twocommunicating host system that might be locatedon two different network.Transport layer:- It is in charge of the delivery ofpackets from a source A to a destination B. Thetransport layer segments data packets from thesending host system & reassemble the data in a datastream on the receiving host system.Session layer:- It is in charge of the management ofnetwork access. The session layer establish, managessession between two communicating host system. 14. Presentation layer:- It determines the format of the datatransmitted to applications, data compressingdecompressing, encrypting etc. The presentation layerensures the information that the application layer of onesystem sends out is readable by the application layer ofanother system.Application layer:- It contains the applications which are usedby the end user, such as Java, Word etc. It provides networkservices to user application. It does not provide services toany other OSI layer. 15. SwitchNetwork Interface CardhubRouter Access pointmodem 16. Repeaters and HubsRepeater Transmits data to all connected computersRepeater HubTransmits data to all connected computers in a star topology Hub 17. SwitchesSwitch 18 18. RoutersRouterRouter 19. CablingThe two most popular types of network cabling aretwisted-pair (also known as 10BaseT) and thin coax(also known as 10Base2) & Optical Fiber. 10BaseTcabling looks like ordinary telephone wire, except thatit has 8 wires inside instead of 4. Thin coax looks likethe copper coaxial cable. 20. Network CablesTypes of CablesTwisted-PairUnshielded (UTP)10BaseTShielded (STP)Coaxial10Base2, 10Base5Fiber-Optics 21 21. 10baseTIn this type of cabling wires are twisted to each other. This help to reduce the electromagnetic induction. When 10BaseT cabling is used, a strand of cabling is inserted between each computer and a hub. If you have 5 computers, youll need 5 cables. Each cable cannot exceed 325 feet in length. Because the cables from all of the PCs converge at a common point, a 10BaseT network forms a star configuration. RJ45 connectors are used in this type of cabling. 22. Standard color-code for Twisted pair cable 23. 10Base210BASE2 coax cables had a maximum length of 185 meters(607 ft). The maximum practical number of nodes that canbe connected to a 10BASE2 segment is limited to 30. In a10BASE2 network. The geometric design that is formedwhen thin coax cabling is used is called a linear orbackbone configuration. The reason for this is that thincoax is always arranged in a straight line of PCs, hubs, orother devices. Thin coax networks always requiretermination. In a 10BASE2 network, each segment of cableis connected to the transceiver (which is usually built intothe network adaptor) using a BNC T-connector, with onesegment connected to each female connector of the T. 24. 10 Base 2 cabling 25. 10Base2 Cable 26. Optical Fiber CableAn optical fiber (or optical fibre) is a flexible,transparent fiber made of glass (silica) or plastic,slightly thicker than a human hair. Optical fiber can beused as a medium for telecommunicationand computer networking because it is flexible andcan be bundled as cables. It is especially advantageousfor long-distance communications. The mostcommonly used fiber optic cable is a multi-mode fibercable (MMF) with a 62.5 micron fiber optic core .Single-mode fiber, another kind of cabling, is moreefficient than multi-mode, but far more expensive.Maximum length is up to 25 km & speed is up to 2 gb. 27. optical fiber Cable & connectorOptical fiber Cable 28. Network ModelsPeer-to-Peer - A peer to peer network is one in which there is no dedicated server and every computer acts as both a client and a server. This is a good networking solution when there are 10 or less users .Client/Server This type of network is designed to support a large Number of users and uses dedicated server(s) to accomplish this. Clients log on to the server(s) in order to run applications or obtain files. 29. Network ModelsPeer-to-PeerClient-Server 30 30. Types of networksLocal Area Network(LAN):-A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that spansa relatively small area, such as a single office or officebuilding, and typically offers high-speed communications.Metropolitan Area Networking(MAN):- A MAN is a computer network that usually spans with in alarge campus or a city. A MAN usually interconnect no ofLANsWide Area Networking(WAN):- A wide are a network (WAN) computer network that spansa relatively large geographical area. Computers connectedto a wide-area network are often connected through publicnetworks, such as the telephone system, leased lines(ISDN), satellite, microwave, or other connection method. 31. Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN):-A communications network that provides connectivity towireless devices within a limited geographic area. "Wi-Fi" isuniversal standard for wireless networks and is the wirelessequivalent of wired Ethernet networks.Storage Area Network(SAN) :-A SAN is a network of storage devices that can be accessedby multiple computers. Each computer on the network canaccess hard drives in the SAN as if they were local disksconnected directly to the computer. This allows individualhard drives to be used by multiple computers, making iteasy to share information between different machines.personal area network(PAN):-A personal area network(PAN) is a computer networkorganized around an individual person. Personal areanetworks typically involve a mobile computer, a cellphone . You can use these networks to transfer filesincluding email and calendar appointments, digitalphotos and music. typically within 10 meters or 33 feed). 32. Networking TypeLocal AreaNetworkWide Area Network33 33. WAN 34. Storage area Network 35. Topology In computer networking topology refers to the layputor design of connected devices. Physical Topology:- It refers to the physical design ofthe network including the devices, location & cableinstallation. Logical Topology:-It refers to the fact that how dataactually transfers in a network as opposed to itsdesign. 36. Different Types of Topologies Bus Topology Star Topology Ring Topology Mesh Topology Tree Topology Hybrid Topology 37. Bus Topology All the nodes (file server, workstations, andperipherals) on a bus topology are connected by onesingle cable. A bus topology consists of a main run of cable with aterminator at each end. All nodes (fileserver, workstations, and peripherals) are connected tothe linear cable. Popular on LANs because they are inexpensive andeasy to install. 38. Bus Topology 39. Bus TopologyAdvantages of Bus Topology It is Cheap, easy to handle and implement. Require less cable It is best suited for small networks.Disadvantages of Bus Topology The cable length is limited. This limits the number of stations that can be connected. This network topology can perform well only for a limited number of nodes. 40. Ring Topology In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighboursfor communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction. A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and cantake down the entire network. To implement a ring network we use the Token Ringtechnology. A token, or small data packet, is continuously passedaround the network. When a device needs to transmit, itreserves the token for the next trip around, then attachesits data packet to it. 41. Ring Topology 42. Ring TopologyAdvantage of Ring Topology Cable faults are easily located, making troubleshootingeasier. Ring networks are moderately easy to install Easier to Mange than a Bus NetworkDisadvantages of Ring Topology The failure of a single node of the network can causethe entire network to fail. A single break in the cable can disrupt the entirenetwork. 43. Star Topology In a star network, each node (file server, workstations, andperipherals) is connected to a central device called a hub. The hub takes a signal that comes from any node andpasses it along to all the other nodes in the network. Data on a star network passes through the hub, switch, orconcentrator before continuing to its destination. The hub, switch, or concentrator manages and controls allfunctions of the network. The star topology reduces the chance of network failure byconnecting all of the systems to a central node. 44. Star Topology 45. Star TopologyAdvantages of Star Topology Easy to manage Easy to locate problems (cable/workstations) Easier to expand than a bus or ring topology. Easy to install and wire. Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.Disadvantages of Star Topology Requires more cable length than a linear topology. If the hub or concentrator fails, nodes attached aredisabled. More expensive 46. Tree Topology A tree topology (hierarchical topology) can be viewedas a collection of star networks arranged in a hierarchy. Tree Topology is also called the combination of bustopology & star Topology This is particularly helpful for colleges, universities andschools so that each of the connect to the big networkin some way. 47. Tree Topology 48. Tree TopologyAdvantages of a Tree Topology Point-to-point wiring for individual segments. All the computers have access to the larger and theirimmediate networks.Disadvantages of a Tree Topology Overall length of each segment is limited by the type ofcabling used. If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down. More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies 49. Mesh Topology In this topology, each node is connected to every other node in the network. Implementing the mesh topology is expensive and difficult. In this type of network, each node may send message to destination through multiple paths. While the data is travelling on the Mesh Network it is automatically configured to reach the destination by taking the shortest route which means the least number of hops. 50. Mesh Topology 51. Mesh TopologyAdvantage of Mesh Topology No traffic problem as there are dedicated links. It has multiple links, so if one route is blocked then otherroutes can be used for data communication. Points to point links make fault identification easy.Disadvantage of Mesh Topology There is mesh of wiring which can be difficult to manage. Installation is complex as each node is connected to everynode. Cabling cost is high. 52. Hybrid Topology A combination of any two or more network topologies. A hybrid topology always accrues when two differentbasic network topologies are connected. It is a mixture of above mentioned topologies.Usually, a central computer is attached with sub-controllers which in turn participate in a variety oftopologies 53. Hybrid Topology 54. Hybrid TopologyAdvantages of a Hybrid Topology It is extremely flexible. It is very reliable.Disadvantages of a Hybrid Topology Expensive 55. IP Address Internet Protocol Address (or IP Address) is an uniqueaddress that computing devices use to identify itself andcommunicate with other devices in the Internet Protocolnetwork. Any device connected to the IP network musthave an unique IP address within its network.IP address is a 32 bit number that is used to uniquelyidentify a computer on a network. 56. Subnet MaskAn IP address has two components, the network address and thehost address. A subnet mask separates the IP address into thenetwork and host addresses (). A Subnet maskis a 32-bit number that masks an IP address, and divides the IPaddress into network address and host address. Subnet Mask ismade by setting network bits to all "1"s and setting host bits toall "0"s. Within a given network, two host addresses are reservedfor special purpose. The "0" address is assigned a networkaddress and "255" is assigned to a broadcast address, and theycannot be assigned to a host. 57. Default GatewayComputer can communicate directly with the othercomputer on the same network. The only way tocommunicate with a computer on the differentnetwork is through a router(internetworking). Thedefault gateway represents the IP address of the routerthat is used to communicate outside of its network. 58. IP Address classes 59. IP Address rangesClass-A(1-126):-Example:- (IP address) (Subnet mask)Binary value of subnet mask11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000Total no of host=2^n=2^24=16777216Total no of valid host=2^n-2=16777214n=Total no of Host bit1 represents for network bits & 0 represents for Host bits 60. IP Address rangesClass-B(128-191):-Example:- address) (Subnet mask)Binary value of subnet mask11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000Total no of host=2^n=2^16=65536Total no of valid host=2^n-2=65534n=Total no of Host bit1 represents for network bits & 0 represents for host bits 61. IP Address rangesClass-C(192-223):-Example:- address) (Subnet mask)Binary value of subnet mask11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000Total no of host=2^n=2^8=256Total no of valid host=2^n-2=254n=Total no of Host bit1 represents for network bits & 0 represents for host bits 62. private IP addresses The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) hasreserved the following three blocks of the IP addressspace for private local networks:- - - - 63. Public IP address An IP address is considered public if the IP number isvalid and falls outside any of the IP address rangesreserved for private uses by Internet standards groups. All the computer connected to the internet must haveunique IP address other than the private IP address. The IP address which is used in publicly for exampleinternet & we have to pay money for that to the serviceprovider. 64. Other reserved IP address is reserved for diagnostic &testing purpose. IP addresses in the range of - are reserved for Automatic PrivateIP Addressing. 65. Setting the IP address Click Start > Control Panel. On the control panel, double-click Network Connections. Right-click Local Area Connection. Click Properties. Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and thenclick Properties. Select Use the Following IP Address. Specify the IP address, Subnet mask, and Defaultgateway (If available) Click OK on the Local Area Connection Properties window. 66. Intranet & Extranet & Internet If the Network is spans with in a office building then itis called intranet. If two different networks are connected through theinternet it is called extranet. Interconnection of many Computer networks is calledInternet. It is a international Computer network. 67. Intranet & ExtranetIntranet InternetInternetExtranetExtranet 68. Uniform Resource Locator (URL) It is used to locate the resource in the network. URL( Protocol used (http://) DNS address ( Path on the server (/tutorial/default.html 69. Networking Protocols Protocol:- A set of rules or guidelines that are used in networking is called protocol. Some of the networking protocols are:- TCP/IP:-It is combination of two protocols one is TCP anotheris IP. TCP is the connection oriented reliable protocol.It is responsible for breaking the messages intosegments & reassembling them at the destinationstation, resending any thing that is not received. Theinternet protocol handles the address part of thepackets so that it gets to the right destination. 70. ICMP( Internet Control Message protocol):-It is a networking protocol that is used by the operatingsystem of network computer to send error message.Example:- Destination host unreachable Pop3(post Office Protocol) , IAMP( Internet ControlMessage Protocol) & SMTP(Simple Mail transferProtocol):- These protocols are used for email retrieval virtually in thenetwork. Telnet( terminal Emulation):-It is a protocol used for remotely accessing the computer ofthe another network. 71. ARP - provides IP-address to MAC address resolutionfor IP packets. A MAC address is your computersunique hardware number and appears in the form 00-A0-F1-27-64-E1 (for example). FTP - File transfer protocol is used for transferringfiles between remote systems. Must resolve host nameto IP address to establish communication HTTP - The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the set ofrules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound,video, and other multimedia files) on the World WideWeb. It is the protocol controlling the transfer andaddressing of HTTP requests and responses. 72. Internet protocol suite The Internet protocol suite is the setof communications protocols used for the Internetandsimilar networks, and generally the mostpopular protocol stack for wide area networks. It iscommonly known as TCP/IP, because of its mostimportantprotocols: TransmissionControlProtocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol(IP), which werethe first networking protocols defined in this standard. TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifyinghowdata shouldbeformatted, addressed, transmitted, routed and receivedat the destination. It has four abstraction layers, eachwith its own protocols. 73. The layers are:1. The link layer (commonly Ethernet) contains communication technologies for alocal network.2. The internet layer (IP) connects local networks, thus establishing internetworking.3. The transport layer (TCP) handles host-to-host communication.4. The application layer (for example HTTP) 74. FirewallFirewall is any hardware or software that is designatedto prevent the unwanted networking traffic.Firewall can block the information entering to &getting out from the network. 75. Firewall AuthorizedLANUserLANInternetFirewallLAN Unauthorized User 76. NetMeetingNetMeeting provides people around the world with anew way of communicating. Users can work togetheron virtually any Windows-based application, exchangeor mark up graphics on an electronicwhiteboard, transfer files, or use the text-based chatprogram. To install Net meeting goes to star then runtype conf & then ok 77. IIS( Internet Information Service)IIS is web server software that providesintegrated, reliable, secure, and scalable software forcreating and managing internal corporate websites andexternal websites on the internet. IIS is not installedby default. 78. Creating IIS server Create a folder on a drive. Under this folder create a text file & write down something. Then rename the file with .html extension name. Go to IIS from start=> programs=>Administrative tools=>IIS=>expand the oncomputer name & then right click on website=>new=>specify thedescription of website =>next=>next=>browse the .html filepath=> then click on finish. Then right click on website you created=>properties=>documents=>click on add=>give the html filename=>ok=>click on move up=>apply=>okOn the client side to access the website go to internet explorertype http://IP Address or DNS name 79. DHCP DHCP ( Dynamic Host Configuration protocol). DHCP is aprotocol used to assign the IP address automatically. In a large corporate where the no of computers are more, itis difficult to assign the IP addresses automatically. Thatswhy we are using DHCP server to assign the IP addressesautomatically DHCP releases & renews the IP addresses as devicesleave & rejoin the network. 80. How A DHCP client get IP addressfrom DHCP server 81. NETWORK ARICHITECHTUREDHCP DHCP CLIENT5 CLIENT5DHCPSERVERDHCP SWITCH CLIENT4DHCPCLIEN1 DHCPDHCP CLIENT3CLIENT2 82. Advantage Of DHCPDHCP reduce the effort of administrator.Reduce the time of providing IP address.Reduce the conflict in networkingThere is no need to assign IP addressesto eachcomputer manually. 83. Disadvantage Of DHCP When a client location is change or another computer isconnect in the place of that computer. In that case the IPaddress is changed. 84. Install DHCP server service on Windows Server 2003 Insert the Windows server 2003 CD Go to Start > Control Panel > Add or Remove Programs . When the Add or Remove Programs windowlaunches, click Add/Remove Windows Components in theleft pane. When the Windows Components Wizard comes up, scrolldown and highlight Networking Services and then clickthe Details button. When the Networking Services window comes up, place acheck mark next to Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol(DHCP) andclickOK andOKagain. 85. Configure DHCP on WindowsServer 2003 Start > Administrative Tools > DHCP Right-click the server node in the left pane andchoose New Scope . This will launch the New ScopeWizard. On the New Scope Wizard, click Next Specify a scope name and scope description. Specify an IP address range and subnet mask. Forthe Start IP address enter, for the End IPaddress enter192.168.0.254 . Finally, specifya subnet mask of and click Next. 86. Specify IP addresses to exclude from Add , and then click Next. The IP address of DHCPserver should be in the exclude List Specify the lease duration for the scope. Verifythat Days is 8 and click Next. Configure DHCP Options. Make sure Yes, I want toconfigure these settings now is selected andclick Next to begin configuring DHCP options. Specify the router IP address and then click Next . If therouter is available. Configure domain name and DNS servers.(If available) Configure WINS servers. On the next screen(If available) Finally, the wizard asks whether you want to activate thescope. 87. DNS(Domain Name System) Every network requires a mechanism to resolvecomputer names to Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. DNS is a mechanism for converting computer name toIP address also IP address to computer name. It works on two Zones. These are forward look up zone& reverse Look up zone. Forward look up zone convert computer name to IPaddress. Reverse look up zone convert IP address to computername. 88. Installing DNS Insert the CD of Windows server 2003. Click Start, click Control Panel, and then click Add orRemove Programs. Click Add/Remove Windows Components. select the Networking Services check box, and thenclick Details. In Subcomponents of Networking Services, selectthe Domain Name System (DNS) check box, click OK,and then click Next. 89. Configuring DNS Start-Programs-Administrative Tools Then select DNS Expand the computer name. Right click on Forward kook up zone Select new zone Then click on Next-Next-Next Then Specify the zone Name With a .com extentionname. Click on Next &Then finish. 90. Domain Controller A domain controller is a server that is running a version ofthe Windows Server operating system and has ActiveDirectory Services installed. In Windows Server2003andMicrosoftWindows 2000 Server, the directory service is namedActive Directory. Active Directory serve as a central location foradministration & security. A Microsoft active directory, in simple terms, is like atelephone book that organizes within it all of the computersand people that have been entered into it. To install Active directory services Go to Start-run typedcpromo. 91. Benefits of a DomainOrganized Easy Location ofParisObjectsInformationSales Repair User1 Computer1 User2Printer1 Delegated Authority 92. Features of a Domain Single Logon Unauthorized client can not log on to the domainCentralized Management Scalability 94 93. Backup Domain Controller Backup Domain Controller (BDC) is a computer thathas a copy of the user accounts database. Unlike theaccounts database on the Primary DomainController (PDC), the BDC database is a read only copy.When changes are made to the master accountsdatabase on the PDC, the PDC pushes the updatesdown to the BDCs Most domains will have at least one BDC, often thereare several BDCs in a domain. These additional domaincontrollers exist to provide fault tolerance. If the PDCfails, then it can be replaced by a BDC. 94. Child Domain Controller For DNS and Active Directory, a domain located in thenamespace tree directly beneath another domain (theparent domain). For example, be a child domain of the parent Also known as a sub domain. A child domain is a member domain of a WindowsActive Directory directory service but is not the rootdomain of that Active Directory. The main purpose of child domain is load balancing. 95. Domain, Tree & Forest A domain is the core administrative unit of theWindows Server 2003 directory service. However, anenterprise may have more than one domain in itsActive Directory. A tree contain multiple domains with contiguous DNSname space. A forest is the combination of multiple trees. 96. Domain Naming TreeTree DomainDomain 98 97. Remote Desktop Remote Desktop allows you to access your computerfrom a remote location. The Remote Desktop Connection client software (forthe computer from which you want to connect) isinstalled by default on all computers running Windows7, Vista, or XP. For using remote desktop connection. The remotedesktop connection must be enabled in the hostcomputer. 98. Enable the Remote Desktopfeature on your host computer1. From the Start menu, select Control Panel (or Settings, and then Control Panel). Double-click System.2. In Windows 7 and Vista, click Remote settings. In the "Remote Desktop" section, select one of the two options to allow connections from other computers. In Windows XP, select the Remote tab. Select Allow users to connect remotely to this computer.3. To choose which users will have remote access, in 7 and Vista, click Select Users... or in XP, click Select Remote Users... . Typically, all administrators of the computer will have access by default. Each user must have a password before you can allow remote access.4. When you are finished, click OK. Your computer will now be able to accept incoming Remote Desktop connections. 99. How to Get Remote Desktop Start => All Programs => Accessories =>Communications, => Remote Desktop Connection Then give the IP address of the computer that you wantaccess remotely. 100. Internet Connection Sharing(ICS) ICS offers a simple way to configure computers in a smallhome office network to share a single Internet connection. For small networks, ICS offers a cost-effective way to provideInternet access to multiple computers. The IP addresses of the computers on the network must alsobe in the 192.168.0.x range, and the subnet mask must alwaysbe If network computers cannot use theseaddresses, ICS does not work properly. When you enable ICS, the ICS computer configures itself withthe IP address and also becomes a DHCP serverfor the network, so that it can provide IP addressinginformation to other computers. 101. ICS using Ccpooxy software Download CCProxy from the download center, runccproxysetup.exe and keep clicking the "Next" button tofinish the installation. Launch CCProxy on the server for Internet connectionsharing. After set up proxy server with CCProxy, you can createaccounts and specify the authentication type for your ownproxy server in the "Account Manager" dialog box ofCCProxy . There are 2 authentication types for you to select:Anonymous - please select "Permit All" for "PermitCategory. 102. Authentication required - please select "Permit Only"for "Permit Category" and then select proper "AuthType" as you wish. CCProxy supports several authentication types such as"IP Address", "MAC Address", "User/Password" andsome combined auth types as you can see in the"Account Manager" dialog box. For Internet connectionsharing, we recommend "IP Address" authenticationtype. 103. Make proxy server settings for IEon client Go to client computer and open IE properties by rightclicking on Internet explorer. Select "Connections" tab, click "LAN Settings" buttonand open the "Local Area Network(LAN) Settings"dialog box. Check "Use a proxy server for your LAN", Fill"" in "Address" and "808" in "Port" Click "OK" button in "Local Area Network (LAN)Settings" and "Internet Options" dialog boxes. Now you can browser Internet web sites in IE at theclient