basic hematology

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What is Haematology


WHAT IS HAEMATOLOGY ?Is the branch of biology, concerned with the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases.

WHAT IS BLOOD ?Is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

BLOOD components


RED BLOOD CELLS also known as erythrocytes.mature red blood cells are flexible biconcave disks.has a disk diameter of 68 m and a thickness of 2m.Male: 4.506.50 x 106/L Female: 3.804.80 x 106/L Life span:- 120 days.


Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) Is the average size of a red blood cell and is calculated by dividing the hematocrit (Hct) by the red blood cell count.

Normal range: 76 - 96 fLMean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) Is the average amount of hemoglobin (Hb) per red blood cell and is calculated by dividing the hemoglobin by the red blood cell count.

Normal range: 27-31 pg/cell.Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) Is the average concentration of hemoglobin in the given volume of packed red blood cells and is calculated by dividing the hemoglobin by the hematocrit.

Normal range: 33-37 g/dL.

PLATELET (Thrombocytes)

are small, irregularly shaped clear cell fragments (i.e. cells that do not have a nucleus containing DNA)Diameter :- 23m .Life span:- 7 14 days.Thrombocytosis: elevated platelet count > 4.5 lakhs.Causes: infection, malignancy, inflammatory disease. Deep venous thrombosis. Thrombocytopenia : decreased platelet count < 1.5 lakhs.Causes: bone marrow dysfunction, malignancy, auto-immune response, medication, chemotherapy. Haemophilia

HEMOGLOBINIs the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells.Male:- 13.0 17.0 g/dLFemale:- 12.0 15.0 g/dLChilderns:- 11.5 15.5 g/dL Increased Hemoglobin :-Polycythemia Decreased Hemoglobin :- Anemia

Hematocrit:-is the percentage (%) of the concentration of red blood cells in blood.Male:- 42.0 52.0%, Female :-37.0 47.0 %

White blood cells ( Leukocytes)Definition: blood cells that fight infection. Ref. ranges: 4.0 11.0 x 103Increased = leukocytosisDecreased = leukopenia.Sub-divided into two categories viz. Granulocytes.Agranulocytes


Characteristic Functions:-Primary defense against bacterial infectionPhagocytizes and digests microorganisms.Morphology on Blood Smear:Granulocyte with neutral staining.Nucleus with 3 to 5 lobes connected by thin chromatin,Cytoplasm with fine granules.Average diameter : 12-15 m. Normal range: 45-75%.Increased: - neutrophilia.Cause: pyogenic bacterial infection.Decreased:- neutropenia.Cause: Vitamin B12 & folate deficiency, blood cancer etc..


Characteristic Functions: Response to Allergic and Parasitic InfectionMorphology on Blood Smear:Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin. cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Average diameter: 12-17 mNormal Range: 2 - 6%.Increased: . eosinophilia. Cause: asthama, hypersensitivity reaction.Decreased : eosinopenia. Cause: alcohol intoxication, over production of steroids in body (Cortisols).


Characteristic Functions: Play a role in parasitic infections and allergies.Morphology on Blood Smear: contain large cytoplasmic granules which obscure the cell nucleus under the microscope.when unstained, the nucleus is visible and it usually has 2 lobes.Average diameter: 10 14 m.Normal range: 0 1 %.Increased: basophilia.Cause: chronic myeloid leukemia.Decreased:- : basopenia.Causes: Hyperthyroidism, pregnancy, irradiation etc..



Characteristic Functions: Phagocytizes dead or damaged cellsMonocytes move into tissue and become MacrophagesMacrophages directly perform the phagocytosisMorphology on Blood smear:Mononuclear Leukocyte Slightly larger than a LymphocyteKidney shaped nucleusAverage diameter: 10 - 30 m.Normal Range: 2-8% of White Blood Cells.Increased : MonocytosisCause: tuberculosis, malaria, typhoid & Kala azar.Decreased: MonocytopeniaCause: Aplastic anemia, Lymphocytic Anemia, Glucocorticoids.


Characteristic Functions: Primary source of viral defense and AntibodyMorphology on Blood Smear :Mononuclear Leukocytes Small cells with minimal cytoplasm.Average diameter: 6- 15 m. Normal Range: 20 45 %. Increased : lymphocytosis.Cause: viral infection, leukemia, bone marrow cancer, radiation therapy etc..Decreased: lymphocytopenia .Cause: acute stages of infection, excess irritation etc..


Type of CellIncreaseDecreaseRed Blood Cell (RBC)Erythrocytosis or Polycythemia Anemia or erythroblastopenia White Blood Cells (WBC):leukocytosisLeukopenia Lymphocyteslymphocytosislymphocytopenia GranulocytesGranulocytosisGranulocytopenia or agranulocytosi sNeutrophilsNeutrophilianeutropeniaEosinophilsEosinophiliaEosinopenia BasophilsBasophiliaBasopenia PlateletsThrombocytosisThrombocytopenia All cell lines-Pancytopenia


Syed Basheer uddin