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  • TCP/MAG/3201 REBYC2

    BASELINE STUDY OF THE SHRIMP TRAWL FISHERY IN MADAGASCAR

    AND STRATEGIES FOR BYCATCH MANAGEMENT

    Final Report

    Hajanirina RAZAFINDRAINIBE

    August 2010

  • TCP/MAG/3201 REBYC2

    Abstract

    To establish the baseline situation of bycatch and discards in Madagascars shrimp

    trawl fishery and the strategies for their management, a desk review of literature

    coupled with information collection from various actors including Fisheries

    Administration, related agencies, fishing companies and research centers was carried

    out between November 2009 and February 2010. Information gathered was

    presented to stakeholders from public and private sector institutions (including

    relevant NGOS) through a series of focus group meetings, in June 2010, for validation

    and updating. Information compiled was then presented to a one-day national

    bycatch workshop held in the FAO Madagascar Office where input on the findings

    was discussed in an open forum. 35 persons participated in the individual and group

    workshops.

    The key findings include: (i) the paucity of data on bycatch in the various shrimp

    fisheries, the situation being more severe for the traditional sector, (ii) the significant

    increase in catch and effort in the traditional multi gear shrimp fishery and dramatic

    decreases in the landings by the industrial fleet, (iii) insufficiency of human, technical

    and financial resources allocated to the sector to effectively manage the resources -

    specifically to resources assessment, monitoring and surveillance. Great concern has

    been raised by the public and private sector regarding interactions between the

    industrial and traditional sectors and their mutual impacts, as well as the lack of

    appropriate zoning and compliance, all contributing to declines in resources.

    Participants to the various meetings and the national workshop recommended that

    the overall objective of shrimp fisheries management should ensure the viability/

    sustainability of the resources. For this, the traditional multi gear and the trawl

    sectors should be managed as an integral unit. Both fisheries should be supported by

    collection of scientific data including bycatch and discards as well as by an enhanced

    monitoring, control and surveillance. Additional measures for resource and habitat

    conservation should be through a network of Biologically Sensitive Shrimp Zones

    (biology-based protected areas), appropriate zoning and governance. Together these

    measures will contribute towards meeting the management objectives of shrimp and

    the bycatch species concerned.

    Workshop participants agreed that urgent actions are required to re-establish

    traditional and industrial fisheries on a sustainable basis and that this could best be

    achieved through a joint program of research and development involving public and

    private sector partners including the Fisheries Administration, shrimp companies and

    fishers, local communities, NGOs and all those concerned by the marine and coastal

    areas, with the assistance from FAO for the development of technical cooperation

    project.

  • TCP/MAG/3201 REBYC2

    Rsum

    Une revue de littrature, conduite de pair avec une collecte dinformation et de

    donnes auprs de divers acteurs, incluant lAdministration Halieutique et de ses

    agences rattaches, les socits de pche et les centres de recherche, a t ralise

    de Novembre 2009 Fvrier 2010, afin dtablir la situation des captures

    accessoires et des rejets de la pche chalutire la crevette Madagascar. Les

    informations collectes ont t prsentes aux responsables des institutions du

    secteur public et priv (dont les ONGs pertinentes), pour validation et mise jour, au

    cours dune srie de runions par groupe cible organise en Juin 2010. Les rsultats

    de ces runions ont t compils et restitus lors dun atelier national sur les pches

    accessoires, tenu au sige de la FAO Madagascar. Le processus a vu la participation

    de 35 personnes aux runions et latelier.

    La revue a mis en exergue : (i) la raret des donnes sur les captures accessoires des

    diffrentes pcheries, la situation tant plus svre pour le secteur traditionnel ; (ii)

    laugmentation significative des captures et de leffort de la pche traditionnelle

    multi-engin et la diminution spectaculaire des dbarquements de la pche

    industrielle; (iii) linsuffisance de moyens humains, techniques et financiers allous

    au secteur pour pouvoir grer efficacement les ressources - spcifiquement pour

    lvaluation des ressources, le suivi et la surveillance. Les secteurs public et priv ont

    exprim leurs inquitudes face aux interactions entre les secteurs industriel et

    traditionnel et leurs impacts mutuels, ainsi qu labsence damnagement spatial

    appropri et son respect, tout ceci contribuant au dclin des ressources.

    Les participants aux runions et latelier national ont recommand comme objectif

    global de la gestion des pcheries crevettires dassurer la viabilit/ durabilit des

    ressources. Pour cela, la pche traditionnelle multi- engin et la pche chalutire

    doivent tre gres comme une unit intgrale. Ces deux pcheries devraient tre

    soutenues par une collecte de donnes scientifiques, dont des donnes sur les

    captures accessoires et les rejets, ainsi que par un systme de suivi, contrle et

    surveillance renforc. Les mesures additionnelles pour la conservation de la

    ressource et de lhabitat devraient considrer un rseau de Zones Crevettires

    Biologiquement Sensibles (aires protges bases sur la biologie), une gouvernance

    et un amnagement spatial appropris. Lensemble de ces mesures contribueront

    latteinte des objectifs de gestion des ressources crevettires et des espces

    daccompagnement concernes.

    Les participants latelier national ont reconnu que des actions urgentes simposent

    pour restaurer les pcheries industrielle et traditionnelle sur une base durable, et

    quun programme conjoint de recherche et de dveloppement impliquant les

    partenaires des secteurs public et priv, incluant lAdministration Halieutique, les

    socits de pche, les pcheurs traditionnels, les communauts locales , les ONGs et

    tous ceux concerns par les zones marines et ctires, avec lassistance de la FAO

    pour le dveloppement dun projet de coopration technique, permettrait

    datteindre cet objectif dans les meilleures conditions.

  • TCP/MAG/3201 REBYC2

    Acknowledgements

    The author wishes to thank FAO for its support in preparing this report, in particular,

    Mr. Amadou Moustapha KAMARA, FAO Representative Madagascar, Comoros,

    Mauritius and the Seychelles, as well as Mr Honor RAZAFIMBELO, Assistant

    Reprsentant (Programme) and his staff of the FAO office in Madagascar.

    Our acknowledgements go also to the Fisheries Administration and related Agencies

    Officers for their precious contributions, specifically to Mr Njaka Ratsimanarisoa who

    facilitated the work and contacts with various stakeholders, and to all shrimp fishing

    companies who shared openly their points of view regarding the topic.

    Special appreciation goes to Dr. Steve Kennelly for his guidance and his efforts in

    reviewing an early manuscript and to FAO Rome for their support in technical

    backstopping.

  • TCP/MAG/3201 REBYC2

    ABBREVIATIONS

    AFD French Agency for Development

    AGU Artisanal Gear Unit

    BANACEM Base Nationale Crevettire de Madagascar

    BRD By-catch Reducing Device

    BSSZ Biologically Sensitive Shrimp Areas (ZCBS)

    CNRO Centre National de Recherche Ocanographique

    CSP Centre de Surveillance des Pches

    EEZ Economic Exclusive Zone

    FAO Food and Agricultural Organization

    GAPCM Groupement des Aquaculteurs et Pcheurs de Crevettes de Madagascar

    HP Horse Power

    IGU Industrial Gear Unit

    IOTC Indian Ocean Tuna Commission

    JICA Japanese International Cooperation Agency

    OFCF Overseas Fisheries Cooperation Foundation

    PNRC Programme National de Recherche Crevettire

    SWIOFC South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Committee

    TED Turtle Excluding Device

    UNDP United Nations Development Programme

  • TCP/MAG/3201 REBYC2

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1 OVERVIEW OF SHRIMP FISHERIES 1

    1.1. Overview of bottom trawl fisheries, catch quantities, catch values and production

    trends, overview of fishing effort. 1

    1.2. Overview of employment in the trawl fisheries sub-sector 3

    1.3. Distribution / marketing of bycatch nationally and for export 3

    1.4. General condition of coastal trawl resources 5

    1.4.1. Status of stocks 5

    1.4.2. Shrimp species harvested, spatial and temporal distribution and variation 5

    1.4.3. Quantities of low value / trash fish captured 8

    1.5. Overview of traditional shrimp fisheries 9

    1.6. The traditional fishing gears 9

    1.6.1. Fishing efforts and catch 10

    1.6.2. Shrimp size composition 11

    2 DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC TRAWL FISHERIES: 12

    2.1. Description of coastal bottom trawl fisheries in which shrimp are part of the catch by

    main fleet segments. 12

    2.1.1. Major fishing ports or landing sites 12

    2.1.2. Number of vessels and type and size of vessels (including photos) 12

    2.1.3. Fishing gears 13

    2.1.4. Employment 14

    2.1.5. Catches 14

    2.1.6. Catch utilization and mar