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  • Enhancing adaptive capacity of women and ethnic minority

    smallholder farmers through improved agro-climate information in

    South-East Asia (ACIS) - project

    BASELINE STUDY

    Findings and Recommendations

    Miguel Coulier

    James Wilderspin November 2016

    J

    ames

    Wild

    ersp

    in/S

    ept.

    2016

  • ACIS project Baseline report Cambodia November 2016

    2

    Table of contents

    List of tables and figures 3

    Acknowledgements 4

    Acronyms 5

    Executive summary 6

    BACKGROUND 10

    1. Project overview 10

    2. Project location 11

    3. Baseline objective and approach 12

    3.1 Objective 12

    3.2 Approach and methodology 13

    3.3 Limitations 14

    FINDINGS 17

    4. Socio-economic profile 17

    4.1 Demographics and other socio-economic data 17

    4.2 Assets 17

    4.3 Food security 18

    4.4 Livelihood profile 20

    4.5 Agricultural productivity 22

    4.6 Household division of labor and decision-making 23 5. Climate risks and impact 25

    5.1 Ratanak Kiris resilience context 25

    5.2 Farmer observations on climate hazards and impact 25

    5.3 Impact on main cash crops 26

    5.4 Adaptation actions 28

    6. Current state of the ACIS system 30

    6.1 At the institutional level 30

    6.2 At the community level 34

    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 39

    Annexes

    41

  • ACIS project Baseline report Cambodia November 2016

    3

    List of tables and figures

    1 - Location of ACIS project in Cambodia 12

    2 - Baseline assessment methodology 13

    3 Household asset ownership, with EM disaggregation 17

    4 - Hunger period: length and time of the year 19

    5 - Major causes of hunger 19

    6 - Main food crops and livestock 20

    7 - Main cash crops and livestock 20

    8 - Main source of income 21

    9 - Livelihood diversification per EM 22

    10 - Livelihood productivity 22

    11 - Gendered division of labor and decision-making on farming and finances 24

    12 - Ratanak Kiri climate resilience context 25

    13 - Main climate hazards and their impact on livelihoods, over the last ten years 26

    14 - Extent of damage to major crops caused by weather and disasters, over the past ten years 27

    15 - Amount of damage to major crops caused by weather and disasters, over the past ten years 27

    16 - Average monetary and weight losses over last 2 to 3 years, as described by farmers 28

    17 - Current observed ACIS institutional set-up in Ratanak Kiri 31

    18 - Institutional users self-assessment of ACIS attitude and practice 32

    19 - Current channels for accessing weather information 35

    20 - Current channels for receiving farming advice 35

    21 - Current channels for training on agricultural techniques 36

    22 - Prioritized channels or formats for agro-climate advice 37

  • ACIS project Baseline report Cambodia November 2016

    4

    Acknowledgements

    This study would not have been possible without the enumerators from the Highlander Association; Ngok

    Chrolang, Chanthorng Snai, Leang Sopheap, Kham Sambeoun, Sa Rady, Ang Bun Keuk, Noub Khoub, Nav

    Khet, Savid Nangkra; their excellent language skills and local knowledge was invaluable to this study.

    Acknowledgement must also be paid to the CEDAC staff; Pol Samath, Thol Chanthea, Heu Rumdoul and to

    Soriyon and Sreang Srey Kouy from the Provincial Department of Agriculture (PDA) for their skills and

    experience.

    Sincere gratitude is also due to CARE field staff; Thuk Bun, Chum Da with a special thanks to Heang Thira whos

    coordination and translations made this study possible. Finally thanks are also due to Jan Noorlander and Junge

    Madsen for their inputs, advice and support.

    Most notably the consultants would like to value the time, energy and openness the women and men in Koun

    Mom and Lumphat have set aside to share their stories, ideas and aspirations. We hope all of these have been

    reflected in this report and will be disseminated widely to benefit the people of Ratanak Kiri as well as others in

    Cambodia.

    Pictures in the report have been provided by the international consultants.

    Miguel Coulier and James Wilderspin

    November 2016

    Disclaimer

    The opinions expressed in this document are those of the consultant and do not necessarily reflect the policies or

    views of CARE International in Cambodia, CEDAC or ICRAF World Agroforestry Centre.

  • ACIS project Baseline report Cambodia November 2016

    5

    Acronyms

    ACIS Agro-Climate Information Services

    CEDAC Cambodian Center for Study and Development in Agriculture

    DPA Development Partnership in Action

    EM Ethnic Minorities

    FGD Focus Group Discussions

    HA Highlander Association

    HHS Household Survey

    ICSO Indigenous Community Support Organisation

    ICT Information, Communications and Technology

    KAP Knowledge, Attitude and Practice

    KII Key Informant Interviews

    MAFF Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

    MoE Margin of Error

    MOE Ministry of Environment

    MOWRAM Ministry of Water Resources and Meteorology

    NDMC National Disaster Management Committtee

    NTFP Non-Timber Forest Products

    PDA Provincial Department of Agriculture

    PDWRM Provincial Department of Water Resources and Meteorology

    SCW Save Cambodia Wildlife

    WEM Women and Ethnic Minorities

  • ACIS project Baseline report Cambodia November 2016

    6

    Executive Summary

    Cambodia is developing rapidly. However the nation remains one of the poorest countries in Southeast Asia and

    there is a growing disparity between urban wealth and rural poverty. Cambodia faces many socio-economic and

    development challenges, including extreme poverty, rising inequality, ineffective management of land and natural

    resources, a shortage of sustainable agricultural livelihoods, gender inequality and lack of good governance.

    Ratanak Kiri province, with its dense forests, fertile lands, unique biodiversity, a tapestry of indigenous and

    cultural richness and strategic borders with Viet Nam and Laos, has been at the forefront of all these dynamic

    changes and experienced multiple pressures and deterioration from the rapid commercialization of agriculture,

    overexploitation of natural resources, hydropower development, land tenure insecurity, Khmer in-migration,

    introduction of Buddhism and other social influences. The various indigenous groups living in Ratanak Kiri have

    been undergoing all these shocks and stresses for many years and tried to adapt in a variety of ways.

    Climate variability and long term change only adds additional shocks and stresses. While individuals and

    communities have always dealt with multiple hazards such as droughts, floods, rainfall, heatwaves, landslides

    etc., as these become more unpredictable, more frequent and intense, current coping or adaptation actions

    become ineffective. Accessing downscaled and actionable agro-climate information is considered as an

    important service to improve adaptive capacity of poor ethnic minority women and result in risk-informed

    decision-making on livelihoods.

    CARE International in Cambodias Project: Enhancing adaptive capacity of women and ethnic minority

    smallholder farmers through improved agro-climate information in South-East Asia aims to enhance the adaptive

    capacity of female ethnic minority smallholder farmers through improving agro-climate information, utilising both

    scientific climate information as well as traditional climate knowledge, to better anticipate and respond to risks

    and opportunities from climatic variability with the explicit goal of reducing vulnerability to the impacts of climate

    change.

    This baseline study is the initial step in understanding the context and situation in Ratanak Kiri, and to lay the

    foundations of CAREs ACIS Project. To enhance the adaptive capacity of women and ethnic minority

    smallholder farmers, the baseline study endeavours to understand in great detail the current context of these

    vulnerable groups and embed this context into the project and work with the local communities to utilise agro

    climate information alongside their strengths and limitations. This study also attempts to frame the interventions

    to better anticipate and respond to risks and opportunities from climatic variability. With the overarching goal to

    reduce vulnerability caused by the impacts of climate change by using scientific climate information as well as

    local/traditional climate knowledge for seasonal planning, this baseline study highlights how CAREs ACIS project

    can best bring about positive change using meteorological observations and decision making on agricultural

    management options.

    Key findings from the baseline study are:

    Poverty, asset ownership and food security information indicate clear differences among the two main

    indigenous groups surveyed, with Tampuen clearly poorer than Krueng. Less Krueng than Tampuen own

    radios, bicycles and smart phones; are hungry throughout the year (for twelve months); or are very poor;

    Overall, mobile phone ownership is very high with 72.1% owning a normal mobile phone. 19.5% of people

    own a smart phone;

    18.5% of farmers state there was ever a time o