baroque music - wikipedia, the free .the , the works. baroque music - wikipedia, the free...

Download Baroque music - Wikipedia, the free .the , the works. Baroque music - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Post on 31-Aug-2018




0 download

Embed Size (px)


  • Periods of Western art musicEarly

    Medieval (5001400)Renaissance (14001600)Baroque (16001760)

    Common practiceBaroque (16001760)Classical (17501830)Romantic (18151910)Modern and contemporary

    20th century (19002000)Contemporary (1975present)21st century (2000present)

    Baroque musicFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Baroque music describes a style of Western Classical music approximatelyextending from 1600 to 1750.[1] This era follows the Renaissance and wasfollowed in turn by the Classical era. The word "baroque" came from thePortuguese word barroco, meaning "misshapen pearl",[2] a negative description ofthe ornate and heavily ornamented music of this period; later, the name came to beapplied also to its architecture. Baroque music forms a major portion of theclassical music canon, being widely studied, performed, and listened to.Composers of the baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach, George FridericHandel, Alessandro Scarlatti, Antonio Vivaldi, Georg Philipp Telemann,Jean-Baptiste Lully, Arcangelo Corelli, Claudio Monteverdi, Jean-PhilippeRameau and Henry Purcell. The baroque period saw the development offunctional tonality. During the period, composers and performers used moreelaborate musical ornamentation, made changes in musical notation, anddeveloped new instrumental playing techniques. Baroque music expanded thesize, range, and complexity of instrumental performance, and also establishedopera as a musical genre. Many musical terms and concepts from this era are stillin use today.

    Contents1 History of the name2 Aesthetics3 History

    3.1 Early baroque music (16001654)3.2 Middle baroque music (16541707)3.3 Late baroque music (16801750)

    4 Influence on later music4.1 Transition to the Classical era (17401780)4.2 After 1760

    5 Styles and forms5.1 The Baroque suite5.2 Baroque versus Renaissance style5.3 Other features

    6 Genres6.1 Vocal6.2 Instrumental

    7 See also8 Notes9 References10 Further reading11 External links

    Baroque music - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    1 of 14 10/6/11 11:17 AM

  • History of the nameThe term "Baroque" is used by music historians generally to describe a broad range of styles from a wide geographicregion, mostly in Europe, composed during a period of approximately 150 years.[3] Although it was long thoughtthat the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music, in ananonymous, satirical review of the premire in October 1733 of Rameaus Hippolyte et Aricie, printed in theMercure de France in May 1734. The critic implied that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complainingthat the music lacked coherent melody, was filled with unremitting dissonances, constantly changed key and meter,and speedily ran through every compositional device.[4]

    The systematic application by historians of the term "baroque" to music of this period is a relatively recentdevelopment. It was in 1919 that Curt Sachs was the first to attempt to apply the five characteristics of HeinrichWlfflins theory of the Baroque systematically to music.[5] In English the term only acquired currency in the 1940s,in the writings of Lang and Bukofzer.[6] Indeed, as late as 1960 there was still considerable dispute in academiccircles, particularly in France and Britain, whether it was meaningful to lump together music as diverse as that ofJacopo Peri, Domenico Scarlatti and J.S. Bach with a single term; yet the term has become widely used and acceptedfor this broad range of music.[7] It may be helpful to distinguish it from both the preceding (Renaissance) andfollowing (Classical) periods of musical history.

    AestheticsComposers associated with the Florentine Camerata like Jacopo Peri, Giulio Caccini and Claudio Monteverdi,sought to depict human affects in a direct manner expressed by a solo voice. Monteverdi's side of his historic debatewith Artusi was published in the foreword to his Fifth Book of Madrigals.[8] Later, the way to view affects becamecodified, and a main treatise is Mattheson's Der vollkommene Kapellmeister from 1739.

    HistoryComposers of the Baroque

    Baroque music - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    2 of 14 10/6/11 11:17 AM

  • Early baroque music (16001654)

    For more details on this topic, see Transition from Renaissance to Baroque in instrumental music.

    Baroque music - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    3 of 14 10/6/11 11:17 AM

  • It is conventionally accepted that the division between the Renaissance and the Baroque period began in Italy withthe formation of the Florentine Camerata, a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellectuals in lateRenaissance Florence who gathered under the patronage of Count Giovanni de' Bardi to discuss and guide trends inthe arts, especially music and drama.[citation needed] In reference to music, their ideals were based on their perceptionof Classical (especially ancient Greek) musical drama, in which discourse and oration was viewed with muchimportance.[9] As such, they rejected the complex polyphony of the late Renaissance and sought to revive an ancientGreek form of musical drama known as a monody, which consisted primarily of a simple solo melody alongside by abasic accompaniment.[10] The early realizations of these ideas, including Jacopo Peri's Dafne and L'Euridice,marked the beginning of opera,[11] which in turn can be considered to have marked the catalyst of Baroquemusic.[12]

    Concerning music theory, the more widespread use of figured bass (also known as "thorough bass") represents thedeveloping importance of harmony as the linear underpinnings of polyphony.[13] Harmony being the end result ofcounterpoint and figured bass being the representation of harmony commonly employed in musical instruction,[14]the two became seen as two means of perception for the same idea, with harmonic progressions entering the notionof composing,[15] as well as the use of the tritone, which was perceived as unstable,[16] in order to create dissonancebecause of this very property. Investment in harmony had also existed among certain composers in the Renaissance,notably Carlo Gesualdo;[17] however, the Renaissance is understood to transition into the Baroque period when theuse of harmony became directed towards tonality rather than modality.[18] This led to the idea that chords, ratherthan notes, created the sense of closure, which is one of the fundamental ideas of what came to be known as tonality.

    Italy formed one of the cornerstones of the new style, as the papacybesieged by Reformation but with coffersfattened by the immense revenues flowing in from Habsburg conquestsearched for artistic means to promote faithin the Roman Catholic Church. One of the most important musical centers was Venice, which had both secular andsacred patronage available.

    Giovanni Gabrieli became one of the important transitional figures in the emergence of the new style, although hiswork is largely considered to be in the "High Renaissance" manner. However, his innovations were foundational tothe new style. Among these are instrumentation (labeling instruments specifically for specific tasks) and the use ofdynamics.

    The demands of religion were also to make the text of sacred works clearer, and hence there was pressure to moveaway from the densely layered polyphony of the Renaissance, to lines which put the words front and center, or had amore limited range of imitation. This created the demand for a more intricate weaving of the vocal line againstbackdrop, or homophony.

    Claudio Monteverdi became the most visible of a generation of composers who felt that there was a secular means tothis "modern" approach to harmony and text, and in 1607 his opera L'Orfeo became the landmark whichdemonstrated the array of effects and techniques that were associated with this new school, called seconda pratica,to distinguish it from the older style or prima pratica. Monteverdi was a master of both, producing precisely styledmadrigals that extended the forms of Luca Marenzio and Giaches de Wert. But it is his pieces in the new style whichbecame the most influential. These included features which are recognizable even to the end of the baroque period,including use of idiomatic writing, virtuoso flourishes, and the use of new techniques.

    This musical language proved to be international, as Heinrich Schtz, a German composer who studied in Veniceunder both Gabrieli and later Monteverdi, used it to the liturgical needs of the Elector of Saxony and served as thechoir master in ecreaon.

    Middle baroque music (16541707)

    Baroque music - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    4 of 14 10/6/11 11:17 AM

  • The rise of the centralized court is one of the economic and political features of what is often labelled the Age ofAbsolutism, personified by Louis XIV of France. The style of palace, and the court system of manners and artswhich he fostered, became the model for the rest of Europe. The realities of rising church and state patronage createdthe demand for organized public music, as the increasing availability of instruments created the demand for chambermusic. This included the availability of keyboard instruments.

    The middle Baroque is separated from the early Baroque by the coming of systematic thinking to the new style and agradual institutionalization of the forms and norms, particularly in opera. As with literature, the printing press andtrade created an expanded international audience for works and greater cross-pollination between national centres ofmusical activity.

    The middle Baroque, in music theory, is identified by the increasingly harmonic focus of musical prac