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    Bangkok Metropolitan Administration

    Action Plan on Global Warming Mitigation 2007 - 2012

    Executive Summary

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    Message Form Governor

    Global warming, driven by the rising of Greenhouse Gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, is now a highly concerned issue as it could cause many changes at the global scale, especially climate pattern, which may threaten livelihood and wellbeing of many sectors at the local scale. Activities in Bangkok Metropolitan, which is a large city, cause high greenhouse gases emission each year, and the emission is expected to increase in the future if there would be no initiatives toward GHG emission reduction. Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, being aware of the global warming crisis and the necessity to take initial action to be part of the global effort in mitigating the problem, has prepared the Action Plan on Global Warming Mitigation 2007 – 2012, which comprises of 5 initiatives: 1) Expand the Mass Transit Rail System within Bangkok Metropolitan Area; 2) Promote the Use of Renewable Energy; 3) Improve Building Electricity Consumption Efficiency; 4) Improve Solid Waste Management and Wastewater Treatment Efficiency; and 5) Expand Park Area. This action plan aims at GHG emission reduction by at least 15% of the total GHG emission anticipated in the year 2012 under business-as-usual projection. In order to achieve this goal, full support from the people of Bangkok as well as every sector is required for the successful implementation of the activities under the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration’s action plan. The preparation of this action plan received opinions and suggestions from the people of Bangkok, which were put together and refined into plan by number of interdisciplinary experts. In the name of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, I’m thankful for the people of Bangkok and agencies who jointly aware of the seriousness of the global warming problem for their cooperation in the preparation of this action plan and also the willingness to jointly mitigate the global warming in the future.

    Mr. Apirak Kosayodhin

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    GHG = Greenhouse gas

    p.a. = per annum

    GWh = Gigawatt hour

    Co2 = Carbon dioxide

    ha = Hectare

    BAU = Business as Usual

    OTP = Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning

    eBUM = Extended Bangkok Urban Model

    MRTA = The Mass Rapid Transit Authority of Thailand

    BRT = Bus Rapid Transit

    CNG = Compressed Natural Gases

    Kg Co2/liter = Kilogram Carbon dioxide per Liter

    ECON = ECON Centre for Economic Analysis

    CDM = Clean Development Mechanism

    DANIDA = The Danish International Development Assistance

    ERM = The Environment Resources Management

    MT/Y = Million Tons per Year

    3Rs concept = Reduce / Reuse / Recycle

    IPCC = Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

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    GHG Emissions Inventory

    Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Declaration of Cooperation on Alleviating

    Global Warming Problems – An initial initiative for global warming mitigation

    Initiative 1: Expand mass transit and improve traffic system

    Action plan 1: Expand the mass transit rail system within the Bangkok

    metropolitan area

    Action plan 2: Improve public bus system

    Action plan 3: Improve traffic system

    Initiative 2: Promote the use of renewable energy

    Action plan 1: Promote the use of biofuels

    Initiative 3: Improve building electricity consumption efficiency

    Action plan 1: Improve building energy consumption efficiency

    Action plan 2: Electricity conservation campaign for Bangkokians.

    Initiative 4: Improve solid waste management and wastewater treatment


    Action plan 1: Increase efficiency in solid waste management

    Action plan 2: Increase efficiency in wastewater treatment

    Initiative 5: Expand park area

    Action plan 1: Plant trees in the Bangkok metropolitan area

    Action plan 2: Plant trees in the neighboring province areas


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    According to the Fourth Assessment Report by the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change,

    continued greenhouse gas emissions at or above current rates will cause further warming and induce

    many changes in the global climate system during the 21st century that would very likely be larger

    than those observed during the 20th century. Global warming is now recognized as a serious threat to

    human civilization.

    Even though Thailand is not bound to international commitments to reduce greenhouse gasses (GHG)

    emissions, such as mandated for developed countries in the Kyoto Protocol under United Nations

    Framework on Convention for Climate Change, The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration believes it

    nonetheless must begin to take action to reduce its contribution to the global warming problem. GHG

    emission levels from the Bangkok metropolitan area are relatively high when compared to other large

    cities even those in developed countries. (See Table 1) Therefore, the Bangkok Metropolitan

    Administration is initiating its own Action Plan to reduce GHG emissions from the city and to take part

    in the global effort to mitigate global warming problems.

    Table 1: Comparison of GHG emission of Bangkok and other major cities

    City Estimated CO2 emission

    (million ton p.a.)

    Estimated population (million)

    Estimated CO2 emission per capita (ton per capita p.a.)

    San Diego 1

    13 2.9 4.5

    Tokyo 2

    71 12.4 5.7

    London 3

    44 7.5 5.9 Bangkok

    4 42.65 6.0 7.1

    New York 5

    58 8.2 7.1

    Toronto 6

    24 2.5 9.6

    San Franscisco 7

    8 0.7 11.4


    1. City of San Diego (2005). City of San Diego Climate Protection Action Plan, 77 pp. 2. Tokyo Metropolitan Government (2007). Tokyo Climate Change Strategy – A Basic Policy for the 10-Year Project for

    a Carbon Minus Tokyo. 25 pp. 3. Greater London Authority (2007). Action Today to Protect Tomorrow – The Mayor’s Climate Change Action Plan, 196

    pp. 4. Estimated in this report 5. City of New York (2007). Inventory of New York City Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 65 pp. 6. Toronto Environment Office (2007). Climate Change, Clean Air And Sustainable Energy Action Plan: Moving From

    Framework To Action Phase 1 Highlights, 16 pp. 7. San Francisco Department of the Environment (2004). Climate Action Plan: Local Actions to Reduce Greenhouse

    Gas Emissions For San Francisco, 140 pp.

    GHG Emissions Inventory:

    The Bangkok Metropolitan area, being Thailand’s major center for socio-economic activities,

    consumes approximately 29,200 GWh of electricity annually, which is equivalent to 14.86 million tons

    of CO2 emissions. Additionally, transportation in Bangkok is dominated by the use of CO2-producing

    vehicles. The Department of Energy Business, Ministry of Energy, estimates that Bangkok’s

    transportation sector consumes approximately 28 million litters of gasoline per day, which is equivalent

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    to approximately 21.18 million tons of CO2 emissions annually. Combined, energy and transportation

    are responsible for 84% of Bangkok’s GHG emissions.

    Methane from solid waste landfill and wastewater is another source of GHG emissions in Bangkok,

    estimated at 1.13 million tons of CO2 equivalent annually or 3 percent of total emissions. The

    remaining 13 percent of Bangkok’s GHG emissions, from miscellaneous sources such as rice fields,

    canals, etc., totals 5.58 million tons of CO2 equivalent annually. (See Table 2)

    Table 2: GHG emission in Bangkok by sectors

    Sector CO2 emission (million ton p.a.)


    Electricity 14.86 34

    Transportation 21.18 50

    Waste 1.13 3

    Other sources 5.58 13

    Total 42.75 100

    As of 2007, the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration manages approximately 1,900 ha of park area,

    including at least 3 million trees. These trees, together with trees on private land, should be able to

    absorb CO2 on the order of 0.1 million tons per year. This equates to net GHG emissions in Bangkok

    of 42.65 million tons of CO2 equivalent per year.

    The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, well aware of the city’s high GHG emissions from various

    activities, has taken initial steps to pioneer for Thailand strategies that address future GHG emissions.

    The activities laid out in this Action Plan consists of 5 initiatives targeted at reducing Bangkok’s total

    GHG emission in the year 2012 by 15% below business as usual (BAU) projections.

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    Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Declaration of Cooperation on Alleviating

    Global Warming Problems – An initial initiative for global warming mitigation:

    The Bangkok Metropolitan Administration’s initial action to address the need for long term


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