ballast and lighting control fagerhult 2006 - evu mwg april 07 swe... · luxmate instabus....

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  • Ballast and Lighting Control

    FAGERHULT 2006

  • DEVELOPMENT

  • 1940Automobile

    Telephone

    Ballast

  • 1950

    Telephone

    Automobile

    Ballast

  • 1960

    Telephone

    Automobile

    Ballast

  • 1970

    Telephone

    Automobile

    Ballast

  • 1980

    Telephone

    Automobile

    Ballast

    1984Tidig variant av hf-don med magnetiska filter

  • 1990

    Telephone

    Ballast

    Automobile

    En enhet enklare koppling, lgre energifrlust.

  • 2000

    Telephone

    Automobile

    Ballast

    12345

    Lg profil, multifunktion, olika belastningar, processor kontroll och DALI

    6

  • Ett gammalt hf-don vger 3,5 gnger fler n nya

  • Dimmable light sourses

  • Incandescent lamps and halogen,

    tungsten

    Dimming range 0-100%

    Dimming extends lamp life (5% of dimming doubles the

    life time.)

    Dimming = energy saving

    Any kind of dimming technology works

    Big loads can get a humming noise from the filament

  • 38mm Fluorescent tube

    Dimming range 20-100% depending on tube (standard or

    rapid start)

    Used in old applications. Dimmer with thyristor dimmer

    and pre-heat transformer or old electronic gear.

    The inductive load stops the dimmer from being fully

    used.

    Flickering light with pre-heat transformer

    Dimmer must be made for inductive loads

  • 26mm Fluorescent tube

    Dimming range 1-100%

    Dimming with 1-10V, DSI or DALI.

    Early dimming technology was made with

    electronic pre-heat units and conventional ballasts.

    This was not a HF-dimming. It easily caused

    flickering light.

  • Compact tubesOnly compact tubes with 4 pins are dimmable.

    Dimming range 5-100%.

    Needs electronic ballast for dimming

  • Small compact tubes

    Incandescent replacement

    Small energy saving flourecent lamps has electronic gear

    built in. The electronics main focus is to maintain a stabile

    and flicker free output. This is a contradiction to dimming.

    Do not dim. The capacitive load can break the dimmer.

  • T5 Fluorescent tube

    Dimming range 1-100%

    Works only with electronic ballast .

    Also as circular tube

  • Mercury lamps

    Dimming range 60-100%

    Only lamps without capasitor are dimmable

    Dimming shortens lamp life

    Lamps need to start at 100% for 10 minutes before

    dimming

    Dimming must be slow, no fast change

    New technology with electronic ballasts will make

    dimming possible in near future

  • High pressure sodium

    Dimming range 50-100%, lower for short periods

    Only lamps without capasitor are dimmable

    Dimming shortens lamp life

    Lamps need to start at 100% for 10 minutes before

    dimming

    Dimming must be slow, no fast change

  • Metal Halide

    Dimming range 50-100%,

    Dimming affects light colour

    Flickers easily during dimming

    Only lamps without capasitor are dimmable

    Dimming shortens lamp life

    Lamps need to start at 100% for 10 minutes before

    dimming

    Dimming must be slow, no fast change

  • Low pressure sodium

    No

  • NEON cold cathodeDimming range 5-100%

    Dimming with conventional transformer

    Electronic transformer for DMX protocol are available

  • LED

    Dimming range 0-100% (voltage control)

    Dimming with special electronic transformers or converters

    Dimming with pulse or voltage control

  • 9 out of 10 do not know that

    fluorescent light is dimmable

    But no one would accept a radio without a volume control

  • Different ways of dimming

  • 230V

    Dimmable hf-ballasts

    230V 12V

    Thyristor dimming

    Thyristor dimming is the most common way of controlling

    a resitive or inductive load. Also know as leading edge

    dimming.

    Noise reduction is needed.

    Creates massive harmonics on mains.

    A coil is used to reduce voltage spikes.

    Dimmer size from 300VA -5500VA.

  • 230V

    Leading edge

    dimming

    Dimming circuit Filter choke

    Thyristor dimming

  • Dimmer for

    control with

    external switch

    250VA

    Dimmer for

    domestic use

    Wallbox mounted

    300-1000VA

    Universaldimmer

    DIN-rail mounting

    500-2000VA Dimmer for large

    loads

    2200-5500VA

  • 230V

    Transistor dimming

    Transistordimming also known as trailing edge dimming. A

    more complicated way of dimming, but with good result.

    Dimms without any noise and are useful in sensitive

    installations.

    Dimms resitive and capasitive loads.

    Creates harmonic distubance om mains.

    Transistor dimmers are often used for dimming electronic

    transformers.

    Shall not be used for dimming conventional transformers!

    Dimmers from 300VA -2200VA.

    230V 12V

    Electronic transformer

  • 230V

    Trailing edge

    dimming

    Dimming circuit

    Transistor dimming

  • 230V

    SINEWAVE DIMMING

    Sinewave dimming is the latest invention in dimming

    technology. The energy input is sampled at a high

    frequency and controlled out with a lower volt/current;

    very much like amplitude control from a Variac

    transformer!

    The first electronic dimmer that do not creats harmonics!

    Phase Input Phase Out

    DIMMS EVERYTHING!

  • The output current waveform is smoothed using a

    passive network to produce an output waveform

    that accurately represents the waveform profile of

    the incoming supply. The PWM process adds less

    than 1% distortion to the mains supply, resulting in

    a completely silent dimmer with a remarkable

    facility for dimming almost any load.

    Overall benefits of Sine Wave dimming:

    Lamp filament noise eliminated

    Extended lamp life due to elimination of load switching and

    reduced peak voltage

    Less than 1% harmonic distortion reduces power costs

    Unity Power Factor

    Minimum 96.5% efficiency to a maximum of 99%

    "Any load" operation (dims the widest variety of loads of any

    dimmer)

    Total short-circuit and overload protection without breaker tripping

  • 230V

    STEP TRANSFORMER

    Step transformer only reduces the main voltage to a lower

    level of aprox. 200V. It is ment for energy saving in

    installations with konventional ballats and starters.

    A typical application are storage, corridors

    Phase Input Phase Out

    DIMMS(?) EVERYTHING!

    BADLY!

    200V

  • Lighting control; how?

    EIBECHLON

    DMX

    DSI

    DALI

    1-10V

    0-10VPWM

    20V current control

    BATIBUS

    RS232

    RS485

    IHC X10IR command

    C-busTransistor dimming

    Tyristor dimming

    Sinewave dimming

    RF control

    And about 20 more

    Switch Control

    Step transformer

    Luxmate

    Instabus

  • Lighting control; divided how?

    EIB ECHLON

    DMX

    DSI DALI1-10V

    0-10V PWM

    20V current controlBATIBUS

    RS232 RS485

    IHC

    X10

    IR command

    C-bus

    Transistor dimming

    Tyristor dimming Sinewave dimming

    RF control

    BMS

    Theatre

    HF-Ballast

    Domestic

    Industrial C-bus

    IHC RF controlEIB

    Audo Visual

    Tyristor dimming

    Transistor dimming

    Tyristor dimming

    Pulse switch Control

    Luxmate Instabus

  • Lighting control; ballast?

    DSI DALI1-10V

    HF-Ballast

    PULSE CONTROL

  • Lighting control; Analouge 1-10V

    N

    L

    +

    -

    Switched phase for off

    Dont mix plus and minus

    Open control wire = 100% light

    Short cut control wire = minimum light level

    50-100 ballast on same control line

    Dimming quality depends on control

    unit performance

    Introduced 1990 BY Philips

    Open protocol

  • Lighting control; Analouge 1-10V

    N

    L

    +

    -

    CONTROL WIRES ARE ONLY

    SINGLE ISOLATED FROM MAINS!

    Distance between mains and control

    wires are less then 8mm and under

    4kV.

    Control wires must be treated as live!

    The same for DSI and DALI

  • Lighting control; Analogue 1-10V

    L N

    Sw

    itc

    he

    d p

    has

    e

    PL

    US

    MIN

    US

    CONTROL UNIT

    10VDC = max output 100%

    1VDC (or less) = min. output

    (depending on the ballast dimming

    quality)

    10V1V0V

    100%

    0%

    Min.

  • Lighting control; Analouge 1-10V

    10VDC

    No voltage drop! All analogue

    ballasts are working as parallell

    connected power supplies

    Voltage drop might occur

    between passive controller

    and first ballast.

    Most likely not.

    10VDC

    10VDC

    10VDC

  • Lighting control; Analouge 1-10V

    10VDC

    Ballast with plus and minus shifted

    will stay at minimum light level

    10VDC

    10VDC

    10VDC

  • Lighting control; Analouge 1-10V

    2mA

    Maximum current per ballast is 2mA.

    Today is 0,5mA more common.

    2mA

    2mA

    2mA8mA

    All control units made for ballast control can

    operate 100mA (equal to 50 ballasts)

    Audio Vision systems needs a amplifier to

    interface the high current.

    AV output works normally with only 5-10mA

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