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    What studies of elite athletes tell usabout promoting long-term

    development

    Joe Baker, PhDYork University, Canada

    www.yorku.ca/bakerj

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

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    We can confidently say:

    1. Experts train differently than non-experts.

    After more than a decade of research

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    We can confidently say:

    1. Experts train differently than non-experts.

    Experts generally perform more training

    After more than a decade of research

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

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    Study 1:Decision-Making

    Expert vs. non-expert

    B-ball, F-hockey,N-ball

    Training history

    Hours training

    Other sports

    Study 2:Endurance

    Expert vs.intermediate vs. low

    Ironman triathletes

    Training history

    Hours training

    Other sports

    Training units

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    Baker, Ct, & Abernethy (2003). J App Sport Psych, 15, 12-25

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    Non-Expert Expert

    Accumulated Hours

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

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    Baker, Ct, & Abernethy (2003). J App Sport Psych, 15, 12-25

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    Non-Expert Expert

    Accumulated Hours Hours Before Becoming

    'Expert'

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    Baker, Ct, & Abernethy (2003). J App Sport Psych, 15, 12-25

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    Non-Expert Expert

    Accumulated Hours Hours Before Becoming

    'Expert'

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    Range 600-6026 hrs

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    174420963457Running

    172520655039Cycling

    65420353273Swimming

    Hours to Date

    Back-PackMid-PackExperts

    4123619612558Total

    Baker, Ct, & Deakin (2005). J App Sport Psych, 17, 64-78

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    174420963457Running

    172520655039Cycling

    65420353273Swimming

    Hours to Date

    Back-PackMid-PackExperts

    4123619612558Total

    Baker, Ct, & Deakin (2005). J App Sport Psych, 17, 64-78

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

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    11/16/20

    174420963457Running

    172520655039Cycling

    65420353273Swimming

    Hours to Date

    Back-PackMid-PackExperts

    4123619612558Total

    Baker, Ct, & Deakin (2005). J App Sport Psych, 17, 64-78

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    174420963457Running

    172520655039Cycling

    65420353273Swimming

    Hours to Date

    Back-PackMid-PackExperts

    4123619612558Total

    Baker, Ct, & Deakin (2005). J App Sport Psych, 17, 64-78

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

  • 7/27/2019 Baker Canoe Kayak Presentation 2010

    7/30

    11/16/20

    174420963457Running

    172520655039Cycling

    65420353273Swimming

    Hours to Date

    Back-PackMid-PackExperts

    4123619612558Total

    Baker, Ct, & Deakin (2005). J App Sport Psych, 17, 64-78

    2188-99121390-129848004-19630Range

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    174420963457Running

    172520655039Cycling

    65420353273Swimming

    Hours to Date

    Back-PackMid-PackExperts

    4123619612558Total

    Baker, Ct, & Deakin (2005). J App Sport Psych, 17, 64-78

    2188-99121390-129848004-19630Range

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

  • 7/27/2019 Baker Canoe Kayak Presentation 2010

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    11/16/20

    We can confidently say:

    1. Experts train differently than non-experts.

    Experts generally perform more training

    After more than a decade of research

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    We can confidently say:

    1. Experts train differently than non-experts.

    Experts generally perform more training

    Experts training is higher in quality

    After more than a decade of research

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

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    11/16/20

    Baker, Ct, & Deakin (2005). J App Sport Psych, 17, 64-78

    0.00

    100.00

    200.00

    300.00

    400.00

    500.00

    600.00

    700.00

    800.00

    900.00

    1000.00

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47Weeks of Training

    Training

    Units

    ExpertsMid-pack

    Back-pack

    0.00

    100.00

    200.00

    300.00

    400.00

    500.00

    600.00

    700.00

    800.00

    900.00

    1000.00

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47Weeks of Training

    Training

    Units

    ExpertsMid-pack

    Back-pack

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    Baker, Ct, & Deakin (2005). J App Sport Psych, 17, 64-78

    0.00

    20.00

    40.00

    60.00

    80.00

    100.00

    120.00

    140.00

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27

    Days of Training

    Training

    Units

    Mid-pack

    Back-pack

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

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    Baker, Ct, & Deakin (2005). J App Sport Psych, 17, 64-78

    0.00

    20.00

    40.00

    60.00

    80.00

    100.00

    120.00

    140.00

    1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27

    Days of Training

    Training

    Units

    ExpertsMid-pack

    Back-pack

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    We can confidently say:

    1. Experts train differently than non-experts.

    After more than a decade of research

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

  • 7/27/2019 Baker Canoe Kayak Presentation 2010

    11/30

    11/16/20

    We can confidently say:

    1. Experts train differently than non-experts.

    2. Optimal development occurs when training ismatched to developmental status.

    After more than a decade of research

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    We can confidently say:

    1. Experts train differently than non-experts.

    2. Optimal development occurs when training ismatched to developmental status.

    Specialization vs. diversification

    After more than a decade of research

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

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    Hours of

    Training

    Baker, Ct, & Abernethy (2003). J App Sport Psych, 15, 12-25

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    We can confidently say:

    1. Experts train differently than non-experts.

    2. Optimal development occurs when training ismatched to developmental status.

    Specialization vs. diversification

    After more than a decade of research

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

  • 7/27/2019 Baker Canoe Kayak Presentation 2010

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    11/16/20

    We can confidently say:

    1. Experts train differently than non-experts.

    2. Optimal development occurs when training ismatched to developmental status.

    Specialization vs. diversification

    Importance of unstructured activity

    After more than a decade of research

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    Baker, Ct, & Abernethy (2003). J App Sport Psych, 15, 12-25

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    Non-Expert Expert

    Accumulated Hours Hours Before Becoming

    'Expert'

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    Lifespan Health and Performance Laboratory

    Range = 600-6026 hrs

    # Sports = 3-14

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    PRACTICE/TRAINING

    GROSS SPECIFIC

    PRACTICE/TRAINING

    GROSS

    Qualities Developed During This Period

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    PRACTICE/TRAINING

    GROSS

    Qualities Developed During This Period

    Generic Skills/Capabilities

    PRACTICE/TRAINING

    GROSS

    Qualities Developed During This Period

    Generic Skills/Capabilities

    General Psychological Skills

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    PRACTICE/TRAINING

    GROSS

    Qualities Developed During This Period

    Generic Skills/Capabilities

    General Psychological Skills

    Intrinsic Motivation

    PRACTICE/TRAINING

    GROSS

    Qualities Developed During This Period

    Generic Skills/Capabilities

    General Psychological Skills

    Intrinsic Motivation

  • 7/27/2019 Baker Canoe Kayak Presentation 2010

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    11/16/20

    We can confidently say:

    1. Experts train differently than non-experts.

    2. Optimal development occurs when training ismatched to developmental status.

    After more than a decade of research