bahan nota qgk 3013 (kecergasan fizikal)

of 62 /62
Kecergasan Fizikal 1 MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014

Author: ronald-williams

Post on 26-Dec-2015




0 download

Embed Size (px)




Kecergasan Fizikal

Kecergasan Fizikal1MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014CHAPTER 12

MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014PASTIKAN ANDA BERSAMA sayaTahukah anda?Definisi & konsep kecergasanKomponen-komponen kecergasan A matter of principleMemahami kadar nadi andaJangan salah faham lagi (misconceptions)3MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014PANDUAN MERANCANG PROGRAM KECERGASAN(Presidents Council on Physical Fitness & Sports, US)Making a CommitmentChecking Your HealthDefining FitnessKnowing the BasicsA Workout ScheduleA Matter of PrincipleMeasuring Your Heart RateControlling Your WeightClothingWhen to Exercise4MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Kalau Tak Pernah Dengar...AerobikAnaerobikBody CompositionBody TypeEndomorphEctomorphMesomorph5MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Terms and TerminologiesCalisthenicsContractionConcentricEccentricFlexibilityStaticBallistic/Dynamic6MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Words and more words...IntensityInterval TrainingFartlex TrainingCircuit TrainingIsometric ExerciseIsotonic ExerciseSlow Twitch FibersFast Twitch Fibers7MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014OVERVIEW OF PHYSICAL FITNESS AND SPORTS

Physical fitness is important throughout life, but it is particularly crucial during childhood and adolescence. A sedentary lifestyle is a major risk factor across the spectrum of preventable diseases that lower the quality of life and result in higher morbidity and mortality.MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 20148MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 20149The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimates that physical inactivity contributes to 400,000 preventable deaths (17% of total deaths) a year in the United States. MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201410The Presidents Council on Physical Fitness and Sports ( reports that the risks associated with physical inactivity begin early.

Among children and adolescents, physical inactivity is a strong contributor to overweight, and youth who are overweight are at heightened risk for type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, orthopedic problems, premature physical development, low self-esteem, asthma, sleep apnea, and gallstones.MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201411Maintaining regular physical activity throughout the school years also greatly increases the likelihood that an individual will continue to be active and physically fit as an adultRecent research indicates that for individuals to be physically able to exercise in adulthood, muscles need to be activated in childhood (Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 2005).A Matter of Principle(Prinsip-prinsip Latihan)Specificity (pengkhususan)Overload (lebih beban)Progressive (ansur maju)Regularity ( berterusan)12MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014COMPONENTS OF FITNESS

According to the American Heart Association, an effective fitness program focuses on 4 fitness elements: muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance. These elements can be pursued not only through traditional sports but also through individual activities, such as skating and jumping rope, and everyday activities, such as gardening and climbing stairs.MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201413There are 3 basic types of structured exerciseMOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201414Aerobic exercise: Also called endurance or cardiovascular exercise, aerobic exercise is any exercise that increases breathing rate and heartbeat. The fitness level of the cardiovascular system is probably one of the most important measures of general fitness, because it is an indication of how effectively the heart and lungs respond to the stress of activity. Cardiovascular fitness directly correlates with risk of heart disease. Aerobic exercise is important for the health of the heart and the skeletal system. Aerobic activities include running, bicycling, swimming, and walking.

MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201415Resistance exerciseAlso known as strength training, resistance exercise increases muscle strength and mass, bone strength, and metabolism. Methods include free weights, weight machines, calisthenics like push-ups or chin-ups that involve pulling against ones own body weight, and resistance tubing, a newer form of resistance exercise that utilizes an elastic band. Supervised weight lifting that emphasizes proper techniques is supported for older preteens. One set of 12 to 20 repetitions of a lighter weight is all it takes to increase muscle strength and endurance in youth. It is recommended that strength training be done every other day, with at least one day of rest between sessions to allow muscles to rebuild. Additional information on resistance/strength training, including exercises for specific age groups, is available from the American Council on Exercise at

MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201416Flexibility or stretching exercise: This kind of exercise focuses on range of motion how the body can be safely bent and stretched. Younger people benefit from flexibility exercises because many types of sports require a flexible, limber body. Flexibility exercises include many types of stretching and floor exercises. Examples of stretching exercises for young athletes, developed by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, may be found at in the sports/exercise section.


BERLANDASKAN KESIHATANdayatahan KardiovaskularDayatahan ototKekuatan OtotKelembutanKomposisi Badan

BERLANDASKAN LAKUAN MOTORAgilitiKepantasanMasa ReaksiFleksibilitiKuasaKoordinasiMOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201419The 10 Best Reasons to ExerciseThe best reasons to exercise revolve around health benefits. In fact, the single best reason to exercise is to get healthier.

Research shows that if you exercise to stay healthy, strong and fit youre more likely to stick with your exercise regime and lose weight and stay healthy.1. Clear skin. Regular physical activity promotes circulation and sends nutrients to your skin, making breakouts of acne less frequent. Plus, acne breakouts will clear up faster if youre regularly sending oxygen to your skin. Healthy skin is one of the best reasons to exercise.

2. Better sleep. As long as you dont exercise two hours before bed, youll get better, deeper sleep if you exercise regularly. A good night's sleep is a great reason to exercise.

3. Less stress. The more you exercise, the better youll cope with anxiety, stress and depression. Youll enjoy more naturally induced happy, positive feelings (endorphins). That alone is a great reason to exercise.

4. Delicious food. If you exercise regularly, you can indulge in your favorite gourmet chocolates without feeling guilty. Healthy weight loss will happen if you exercise regularly and you can enjoy yourself at the same time! 5. More brain cells. Exercise drives more oxygen to feed your brain, making you think quickly and clearly. Learning new physical activities such as dance or jazzercise builds new connections between your brain cells and helps clear environmental toxins.

6. Toned, defined muscles. The more you exercise, the stronger and healthier your muscles will become - and the better they'll serve you. It's not all about healthy weight loss: building healthy mass is also an exercise benefit. Feeling toned is a great reason to exercise.7. Better sex. Physical activity sends more blood to all parts of your body, making you respond more quickly to sexual activity. Youll enjoy sex more not only because youre chasing healthy weight loss youre also more confident about your body. Getting satisfied sexually is one of the best reasons to exercise.

8. More confidence. Not only will you have more confidence in yourself if you exercise regularly, youll be perceived as kinder, smarter and more confident. Feeling good about yourself is one of the best reasons to exercise.9. Stronger immune system. Regular exercise helps combat free radicals, and you sweat out the toxins that trigger disease and infections. The health benefits of exercise include lower blood pressure, lower bad cholesterol levels, and a lower heart rate.

10. More energy. Physical activity is not only an effective weight loss method, its also a great way to increase your energy levels. Having energy to enjoy life is probably the best reason to exercise!

,,,,,,,,The benefits of exercise dont allow you to eat whatever you want whenever you want, and youll have to exercise regularly to maintain the benefits but its worth it. These are good reasons to exercise that will help you the rest of your life..Mengenal Kadar Nadi KitaKadar Nadi Rehat (KNR)Kadar Nadi Maksima (KNM)Kadar Nadi Latihan @ Sasaran (KNL)Kadar Nadi memanaskan badan (120dsm)Kadar nadi Post Exercise (KNPost)33MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014KNL = 60% (KNM - KNR) + KNRKNM = 220 - Umur (40thn)KNR = ? ( katakanlah 60)KNL = 0.6 X (180 - 60} +60KNL = [0.6 X 120] + 60 KNL = 72 + 60KNL = 132 dsm

132 dsm merupakan kadar nadi yang sepatutnya saya capai semasa beraktiviti supaya senaman saya berkesan34MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Ciri-Ciri Sesi LatihanIntensity (How Hard)Duration (How Long)Frequency (How Often)Mode (What activities)



MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201436Bersenam sampai sakit-sakit merupakan ciri-ciri senaman yang efektif.Kurang tepat: No pain No gain falsafah yang tidak sesuai lagi digunakan untuk kecergasan. Panduan terbaik: 60%-3X-30m dan beransur maju.

37MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Berpeluh dengan banyak dalam sesi senaman merupakan petunjuk senaman yang berkesan.Salah: Perpeluhan ialah mekanisma pengawalan suhu badan yang bergantung kepada suhu luaran. Di negara yang tidak humid dan sejuk perpeluhan adalah minimal walaupun intensiti senaman tinggi dan berkesan.38MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Jika saya jalankan sesi angkat berat, ini akan memberi stress dan cedera kepada persendian sayaSebaliknya yang betul:Latihan bebanan dan latihan rintangan, membantu menguatkan tisu-tisu pengikat persendian dengan syarat latihan itu progresif dan berpandukan prinsip latihan yang sempurna.39MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Wanita seperti saya dilarang jalankan latihan bebanan sebab tak mahu jadi macam Malik NorTak Betul: Jangan khuatir, anda tak mungkin jadi macam Malik Nor sebab orang perempuan % hormon testosterone I.u. sejenis hormon yang membantu hipertrofi otot tersangat kecil. Hormon ini, alhamdulillah hanya ada pada lelaki tulin. Wbp sesetengah perempuanyang tak berapa tulin ada extra.40MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Facts and more facts.Ramai yang bencikan senaman sehinggakan mereka lebih suka basuh sinki dari keluar bersenam.In US more than 60% of American adults are not regularly active. In Malaysia . Health is the first wealthPerubahan kepada gaya hidup merupakan cara terbaik dari menghalang penyakit dan kematian awal (nyawa di tangan Allah)41MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Fakta dan fakta lagi..Jangka Hayat meningkat lebih 60% semenjak 1900an. Lahir 1900 hidup 47 tahun. Lahir 1995 hidup 73 tahunTubuh badan kita bagaikan enjin yang akan berkarat jika kurang diguna.

42MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Jika saya berhenti dari menjalankan latihan bebanan, otot-otot saya bertukar jadi lemakOtot-otot dengan lemak bezanya seperti kayu dengan besi:Berhenti dari latihan bebanan, atrofi otot berlaku (mengecut). Bila berhenti latihan lemak mula terkumpul o.I. Seolah-olah otot yang hilang bertukar jadi lemak.43MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Saya perlu makan vitamin tambahan untuk bertenaga lebihTak Perlu:Makanan yang seimbang mempunyai vitamin yang mencukupi. Lagi pula, Punca tenaga utama adalah Kabohidrat seperti nasi dan roti.44MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Sebelum berjogging, saya makan glukose agar saya tidak cepat letih.

Tidak benar:3 perkara akan berlaku;

1. Rebound hypoglycemialoya ,disorientasi, helucinasi2. Merencat pembakaran lemak3. dehidrasi45MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Jika saya berhenti dari menjalankan latihan bebanan, otot-otot saya bertukar jadi lemakOtot-otot dengan lemak bezanya seperti kayu dengan besi:Berhenti dari latihan bebanan, atrofi otot berlaku (mengecut). Bila berhenti latihan lemak mula terkumpul o.I. Seolah-olah otot yang hilang bertukar jadi lemak.46MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201447Jangan salah faham lagi..Jika10 tahun lampau berat badan saya sama seperti yang ada sekarang, ini bermakna saya secergas dahulu

Tidak mungkin: Komposisi badan tidak berkait terus dengan kecergasan. Gaya hidup yang lebih berpengaruh kepada kecergasan.MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Minum minuman sejuk semasa senaman membuatkan cramps diperutPun tak betul:Sebab air yang sejuk 8-15 dajah celsius akan diserap masuk ke sel dengan lebih baik dari air suam/panas.Cramp di perut boleh terjadi jika minuman yang diambil adalah berkonsentrasi tinggi48MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Sebelum berjogging, saya makan glukose agar saya tidak cepat letih.

Tidak benar:3 perkara akan berlaku;

1. Rebound hypoglycemialoya ,disorientasi, helucinasi2. Merencat pembakaran lemak3. dehidrasi49MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 2014Building Motivation To ChangeExamining the pros and cons of changeBoosting self-efficacyIdentifying and overcoming key barriers to change

50MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201450Enhancing Our Readiness To ChangePre-contemplatingContemplating: Intending to take action within 6 monthPreparation: planning to take action within a monthAction: outwardly changing behaviorMaintenance: Successful behavior51MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201451Developing Skills for Change: Creating a personalized PlanMonitor our behavior and gather dataAnalyze data and identify patternsSet realistic and specific goalsDevise a strategy or plan of actionMake personal contract

52MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201452Staying With It (adherence)Social influencesLevels of motivation and commitmentChoice of techniques and level of effortStress barriersProcrastinating/rationalizing & blaming

53MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201453epilog..we are in charge of our health!! Many of the decisions we make everyday have an impact on the quality of our lives, both now and the future. By making positive choices, large and small, we help ensure a lifetime of wellness.54MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201454TQMOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201455Meaning of concentration..


MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201457Sports injuryMOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201458

Kecederaan dalam sukan

MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201459Aduhhh.Semangat juang yg tinggi

MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201460Hang ingat aku ni tua sangat keeeeeSponsorship in sports.

MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201461Definition of flexibility.

MOHD SANI MADON (PhD) UPSI 201462Unfair advantage.