BACKGROUND TO THE COUNTRIES’ HOUSING POLICY AND HOUSING ACT PRESENTATION TO THE PORTFOLIO COMMITTEE 9 JUNE 2009.

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  • Slide 1
  • BACKGROUND TO THE COUNTRIES HOUSING POLICY AND HOUSING ACT PRESENTATION TO THE PORTFOLIO COMMITTEE 9 JUNE 2009
  • Slide 2
  • INTRODUCTION In order to fully appreciate the complexity of the housing programme it is considered essential to have a common understanding of the range of human settlements that we need to serve. There is no internationally agreed classification but this presentation attempts to provide an interpretation of the South African settlement context
  • Slide 3
  • OUTLINE 1.Towards a common understanding of South African human settlements 2.The White Paper on a New Housing Policy and Strategy for South Africa, 1994 3.The Housing Act, 1996
  • Slide 4
  • TOWARDS A COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT TYPOLOGIES
  • Slide 5
  • Settlement types Human Settlements are complex social and economic phenomena which exist along an urban-rural continuum No commonly agreed definition of urban and rural and clearly defined physical & social boundary between urban and rural areas Urban and rural areas are economically, socially and environmentally interdependent Major differentiation in the actual form of housing and types of tenure
  • Slide 6
  • Settlement continuum
  • Slide 7
  • Differentiation of settlements by tenure arrangements for housing policy purposes
  • Slide 8
  • Settlements with secure freehold and rental tenure
  • Slide 9
  • Metropolitan areas Region wide urban footprint Established formal core of industrial, commercial and suburban development; Formal townships, hostels and backyards; Informal settlements with significant subsidised housing on the periphery; High rates of (circular) migration Highest concentrations of urban poor; Examples Gauteng, Durban, Cape Town
  • Slide 10
  • Gauteng Metropolitan Area
  • Slide 11
  • Durban metro
  • Slide 12
  • Primary cities Typically former colonial administrative centres Province wide urban footprint Provincial hubs of mining and industrial areas Limited suburban stock, formalised townships extended with subsidised housing and informal settlements; Examples Kimberly, Bloemfontein, East London
  • Slide 13
  • Primary city
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • Secondary cities Established formal core of mining, commerce and suburban development; Often linked to old former homeland settlements in vicinity Formal townships with backyards; informal and traditional settlements, Significant subsidised housing on the periphery; Rapid urbanisation and extreme levels of poverty; Examples Nelspruit, Rustenburg, Polokwane, Witbank-Middelburg
  • Slide 16
  • Secondary city
  • Slide 17
  • Slide 18
  • Small towns Typically a small commercial, administrative, farming or tourist node; Small, ageing formal housing stock; Former township usually spatially integrated over time with the old town through subsidised housing and informal settlements; Diminished social services Struggling economies, almost non-existent prospects for formal employment Examples Wakkerstroom, Lady Frere
  • Slide 19
  • Small town
  • Slide 20
  • Slide 21
  • Settlements with communal tenure
  • Slide 22
  • Households in rural areas who enjoy functional security of tenure (communal tenure); Conflicting / contested land rights Variety of densities The poorest of the poor - elderly, women and children pre-dominate Lack of social and economic development opportunities
  • Slide 23
  • Settlements with communal tenure Economy - subsistence farming but dependent on grants and remittances Some overcrowding, leading to poor utilisation of land; Subject to seasonal / circular migration Examples Ingonyama Trust KZN, former homeland areas Mpumalanga, Limpopo, Eastern Cape.
  • Slide 24
  • Communal land tenure (KZN)
  • Slide 25
  • Medium dense rural settlement (EC)
  • Slide 26
  • Communal land tenure - homesteads
  • Slide 27
  • Displaced dense settlements Informal settlements on traditional land Apartheid settlement patterns Characterised by absence of formal industrial or commercial activity Dependent on urban remittances and government grants Out-migration and split urban-rural lifestyles common Examples - Bushbuckridge
  • Slide 28
  • Displaced dense rural settlement (Mpumalanga)
  • Slide 29
  • Farm settlements
  • Slide 30
  • Intensive commercial farming areas High yield farming; Characterised by low labour inputs except in times of cropping; Usually served by agri-villages / small towns Examples Fruit farming areas, Western Cape, Eastern Cape, Mpumalanga
  • Slide 31
  • Intensive farming
  • Slide 32
  • Large commercial farms Significant consolidation over past decade Increasing mechanisation Marked by labour evictions in response to land legislation Driving growth in poor populations in small towns poverty traps Low labour need except in cropping season Worker housing varies from very poor to good Central Free State grain farming
  • Slide 33
  • Large commercial farms
  • Slide 34
  • Extensive commercial farming areas Cattle and game farming in areas of low agricultural potential Serviced by a small labour force Housing usually on-farm and of uneven quality Examples Cattle and game farms around Northern provinces
  • Slide 35
  • Extensive commercial farming
  • Slide 36
  • Subsistence farming Communal land rights Mostly women Far from markets and poor infrastructure Mostly own consumption Incomes augmented with remittances from urban areas and government grants
  • Slide 37
  • Subsistence farming
  • Slide 38
  • Policy implications Constitutional obligation on State to progressively realise the right to adequate housing within the available means. The National Housing Programme responds to the housing needs of all the settlement types and is continuously evolving as the socio- economic environment changes.
  • Slide 39
  • Thank you
  • Slide 40
  • Brief background to the New Housing Policy and Strategy for South Africa,1994
  • Slide 41
  • Background Multi-party and stakeholder negotiations in the National Housing Forum culminated in the Housing White Paper, being approved in December, 1994 The policy was shaped by the prevailing context of the housing situation and past housing practices and settlement laws.
  • Slide 42
  • Housing challenges1994 Population estimated at 43,5m 43% unemployment 55%of households earned below R1 000,00 pm (poverty line at the time) Large informal sector not contributing to tax base Only 16,9 % of households could house themselves 83,1% of households earned R3 500 and less and needed housing assistance
  • Slide 43
  • Housing backlog: 1,5 to 3 million households in need of housing assistance 200 000 new households per annum 5 million traditional dwellings 25% no access to potable water 48% no sanitation facilities 46,5% no access to electricity Housing challenges1994
  • Slide 44
  • The White Paper, 1994 Strategic thrusts: 1.Stabilising the housing environment 2.Supporting the housing process 3.Mobilising housing credit 4.Providing housing subsidy assistance 5.Rationalising the institutional framework 6.Facilitate speedy release of serviced land 7.Coordinating public sector investment
  • Slide 45
  • The White Paper, 1994 Key impacts Introduction and refinement of housing subsidy scheme and backlog Rationalising of roles and responsibilities and legislation Mobilising housing finance National Housing Finance Corporation, Mortgage Indemnity Fund, Rightsizing Servcon / Thubelisha Peoples Housing Process
  • Slide 46
  • Housing Act, 1996
  • Slide 47
  • Defines the housing processDefines the housing process Sets general principlesSets general principles Defines roles and responsibilities of government spheresDefines roles and responsibilities of government spheres Provides for - National Housing Code, National Housing Information System, National and Provincial Housing Development PlansProvides for - National Housing Code, National Housing Information System, National and Provincial Housing Development Plans Establishes the South African Housing fund and Provincial Housing FundsEstablishes the South African Housing fund and Provincial Housing Funds
  • Slide 48
  • Housing Act, 1996 Rationalises previous housing legislationRationalises previous housing legislation Provides for the termination of old business dispensationProvides for the termination of old business dispensation Has gone through a number of amendments most significantly:Has gone through a number of amendments most significantly: Abolishing provincial housing boards Pre-emptive right Procurement policy
  • Slide 49
  • Discussion Questions?

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