Axial skeleton

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<ul><li> 1. The Skeletal SystemComposed ofthe 206 bonesin the humanbody!!</li></ul> <p> 2. Skeletal SystemFunctions:1. Support bears the weight of the body2. Protection- skull the brain, ribs=lungs3. Movement muscles attach 3. Skeletal SystemFunctions:4. Storage*minerals such as calcium &amp;phosphorus are stored andreleased from bone *fat in yellow bone marrow5. Hemopoiesis makes blood cells in red bone marrow 4. Skeletal System5 Types of bones categorized by shape:1. Long bones Longer than wide Bear weight Ex. femur 5. Skeletal System5 Types of bones categorized by shape:2. Short bones About same lengthas width Bear weight Ex. Carpels of wristand tarsals of ankle 6. Skeletal System5 Types of bones categorized byshape:3. Flat bones Thin and usually curved Protect brain and thoracic organs Provide wide area muscle attachment Ex. Ribs, skull, shoulder 7. Skeletal System5 Types of bones categorized by shape:4. Sesamoid Small and round Ex. Patella of knee 8. Skeletal System5 Types of bones categorized by shape:5. Irregular Odd shaped and doesnt fitother categories Ex. vertebra 9. Skeletal SystemParts of the long bone:Two main parts:1. Epiphysis*Found on the ends*Spongy/Cancellous bone 10. Skeletal SystemParts of the long bone:Two main parts:2. Diaphysis Shaft or long part Is compact bone 11. Skeletal SystemTypes of bone tissue:1. Spongy bone/Cancellous bone contains networks of bony plateswith spaces - trabeculae not as dense a compact bone 12. Skeletal SystemTypes of bone tissue:2. Compact bone dense and hard Shaft of bone 13. Skeletal SystemOther parts of long bone:Epiphyseal plate or growth plate:Is hyaline tissue where growth originates in those under 25 yrsEpiphyseal line in adults theepiphyseal plate ossifies orhardens to bone tissue 14. Skeletal SystemOther parts of long bone:Sheaths cover the bonea. endosteum inner most; linesthe medullary cavityb. periosteum outer most; whichcontains blood vessels and nerves 15. Skeletal SystemMedullary cavity central cavity oflong bone where you find yellowor red bone marrow.Types of Marrow:1. Yellow bone marrow stores fat2. Red bone marrow produces red and white blood cells 16. Skeletal system is divided intotwo major sections: 1. Axial skeleton bones of central axis Includes 80 bones Includes: the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage 17. skullVertebral columnThoracic cage Vertebral column 18. Skeletal system divided into two major sections:2. Appendicular skeleton bones of upper and lowerappendages and bones thatattach them to the axialskeleton 19. Upper appendages and girdlesLower appendages and girdles 20. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Skeletal SystemAppendicular Skeleton includes:1. Pectoral girdle joins the upper limbs to the axial skeleton Includes the clavicle (collar bone) and scapula(shoulder blade) 21. Appendicular skeleton includes: Pectoral Girdle 22. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Appendicular Skeleton includes: 2. Pelvic girdle joins the lower limbs to the axialskeleton Includes the 2 coxae , sacrum,coccyx Coxae is formed by the fusion of3 bones (ilium, pubis, andischium) 23. Appendicular skeleton includes:Pelvic gridleNote three bones of coxae Coxae 24. Appendicular skeleton includes:Pelvic gridleSacrum 25. Appendicular skeleton includes:Pelvic gridlecoccyx 26. Appendicular skeleton includes:Lower appendages include:1. FemurConnects to pelvic girdleStrongest bone in body2. Tibia larger inner bone of lower leg3. Fibula smaller outer bone of lower leg 27. Bones of Lower Appendage 28. Appendicular skeleton includes:Lower appendages include:4. PatellaKnee capActs as a lever to help move theleg 29. Appendicular skeleton includes:5. Bones of ankle and foot:7 tarsus (ankle)5 metatarsus (foot)5 digits (foot) each with 3 phalanges proximal, middle and distalphalanges except the big toe thathas only 2 phalanges only proximaland distal 30. Ankle and foot: TarsusTarsals proximal middledistal 31. Appendicular skeleton includes:Upper appendage includes:1. Humerus upper bone that attaches limb to pectoral girdle2. Radius small bone of lower arm that attaches to the thumbs3. Ulna small bone that attaches to the little finger and the humerus 32. Bones of upper appendageHumerus 33. Appendicular skeleton includes::Upper appendage includes4. Bones of wrist and hand 8 carpals 4 distal carpals 4 proximal carpals Articulation of carpals allowsyou to move the wrist 34. 5 Bones of the wrist and hand Carpels 35. Appendicular skeleton includes:Upper appendage includes:4. Bones of wrist and hand8 carpals Metacarpals 5 long bones ofthe hand numbered I-V from themedial to lateral(thumb to little finger) Digits made of phalanges Three phalanges/fingerexcept thumb has only 2 Proximal, middle, distal 36. 5 Bones of the wrist and handMetacarpals 37. 5 Bones of the wrist and handdistalmiddleproximalPhalanges 38. Terminology:Proximal means nearest thebodyDistal means distant (away)from the body 39. Proximal and Distal 40. The Skeletal SystemDifferences between skeleton ofchild and adult:More bones in youth and fusetogether as adultEpiphyseal plate becomes lineRed bone marrow to yellowArticular cartilage thickens 41. The Skull or CraniumThe skull protects the brainand entrances to respiratoryand digestive systems.The skull has 28 bones. 42. The Skull Terminology:Posterior back Frontal frontLateral - sideInferior belowSuperior - above 43. Bones of the Cranium 44. Parietal There are twoLateral View 45. OccipitalOnly oneLateral View 46. Temporal There are twoLateral View 47. Sutures lines or joints between theflat bones of the skulll 48. Sagittal suture suture between thetwo parietal bones, space betweenwhen born that closes as develop. 49. PROCESSES APROJECTION OF THE BONE MASTOID PROCESS FOUND ON THE TEMPORALBONES WHERE MUSCLESATTACH. 50. Mastoid ProcessLateral View 51. Frontal View 52. FrontalFrontal View 53. NasalFrontal View 54. VomerFrontal View 55. Zygomatic boneFrontal View 56. ZYGOMATIC ARCH A PROCESS FROM THE ZYGOMATICBONE WHICH JOINS A PROCESS OF THETEMPORAL BONE FORMING AN ARCH. 57. MaxillaFrontal View 58. MandibleFrontal View 59. MANDIBLE MOVES - only movablebone in the skull.MAXILLA AND MANDIBLE AREUSED FOR CHEWING YOUR FOOD 60. Two bones of eyessocket: Ethmoid bone andlacrimal bone 61. Nasal Septum: Vomer and ethmoid boneform nasal septum whichdivides the nasal cavity intwo . 62. Frontal ParietalTemporalNasalVomer Zygoma MaxillaMandibleFrontal View 63. Mastoid ProcessLateral View 64. FrontalLateral View 65. NasalLateral View 66. ZygomaticLateral View 67. MaxillaLateral View 68. Mandible Lateral View 69. SphenoidLateral View 70. Terminology:Meatus a passagewayExternal auditory meatus isthe passage way that soundwaves travel to reach theeardrum. 71. External Auditory MeatusPassageway through which sound waves travel. Lateral View 72. FrontalParietalSphenoid Nasal TemporalZygomaOccipitalMaxilla Mastoid ProcessMandibleExternal Auditory MeatusLateral View 73. A few more things:Foramen a holeMental foramen is in themandible and where the mentalnerve passes through. 74. Sinus a hollowed out space inthe bone. 75. Nasal cavity hollowed out,fluid filled regions coveredwith a thin mucous membranedivided by the vomer andethmoid bone (septum). 76. Paranasal sinuses air-filledspaces connected to the nasalcavities. 77. Sinuses reduce the weight of theskull, warm air entering body, andaffect sound of the voice.Orbits = eye sockets, house andprotect the eye. 78. Using page 84 in your text labelthe bones of the cranium 79. Vertebral ColumnFunctions:Protects the spinal cordSupports the head and neckBears body weight 80. Vertebral ColumnIt is S shaped andacts as a spring orshock absorber toabsorb the impactwhen we walk. 81. Vertebral ColumnIt is composed of a series ofbones called vertebrae 82. Vertebral ColumnIt is marvelously designed toprovide strength yet flexibility.The way the vertebrae fittogether the columnis strong yet onecan bend and rotatethe back. 83. Vertebral ColumnIt is marvelously designed toprovide strength yet flexibility.The way the vertebrae fit togetheror interlock gives it strengthflexibility so can bendand rotate. 84. Vertebral ColumnIt is composed of 5 sections:7 cervical vertebrae12 thoracic vertebrae5 lumbar vertebraeSacrum 5 fused vertebraeCoccyx 3 fused vertebrae 85. sacrumcoccyx 86. Vertebral ColumnDisorders:At birth vertebral column in concave, ands shape develops.Scoliosis abnormal sideways curve ofvertebral column. 87. Vertebral ColumnDisorders:At birth v. column in concave, and s shape developes-Scoliosis abnormal sideways curve of v. columnLordosis exaggerated curve oflumbar swayback 88. Vertebral ColumnDisorders:At birth v. column in concave, and s shape developes-Scoliosis abnormal sideways curve of v. columnLordosis exaggerated curve of lumbar swaybackKyphosis exaggerated curve ofthoracic vertebrae = hunchback 89. Vertebral ColumnShape of the VertebraeBody bears weight, bodies rest on eachother. 90. Vertebral Column Shape of the VertebraeVertebral Foramen opening throughwhich the spinal cord travels. 91. Vertebral ColumnShape of the VertebraeVertebral Arch surrounds the foramen. 92. Vertebral ColumnShape of the VertebraeProcesses bone extensions of thevertebrae for muscle attachment andinterlock to give mobility.Transverse process extends to thesides of each vertebrae,place for muscle/ligament attachment. 93. Vertebral ColumnShape of the VertebraeTransverse process extends to the sides of each vertebrae, place for muscle/ligamentattachment.Spinous process extends backwardand downward, place for muscleattachment. 94. Vertebral ColumnShape of the VertebraeTransverse process extends to the sides of each vertebrae, place for muscle/ligamentattachment.Superior and inferior articularprocesses interlock the vertebrae 95. Intervertebral Disc - fibrous cartilagefound between the vertebraedistributing pressure evenly across thedisc. 96. Herniated Disc - when a disc pushesoutside its normal area. Oftenpinching the nerves causing pain andnumbness. 97. Thoracic CageCommonly called the rib cageProtects the heart, lungs, andother organs of the thoraciccavityEncloses the thoracic cavity 98. Thoracic CageCommonly called the rib cageProtects the heart, lungs, and other organs of the thoracic cavityEncloses the thoracic cavityComposed of twelve pairs ofribs and the sternum (breastplate or bone) 99. Thoracic CageTypes of RibsThe classification of ribs: 1. True ribs 1st 7 pairsthat attach directly to thesternum by the coastalcartilage 100. Thoracic CageTypes of RibsThe classification of ribs: 1. True ribs 1st 7 pairs that attach directly to the sternumby the coastal cartilage 101. Thoracic CageTypes of RibsThe classification of ribs:1. True ribs 1st 7 pairs that attach directly to the sternum by thecoastal cartilage2. False ribs inferior 5pairs that connect indirectly(first 3 pairs) to the sternumor do not attach at all to thesternum (last two pairs) 102. Thoracic CageTypes of RibsThe classification of ribs:1. True ribs 1st 7 pairs that attach directly to the sternum by thecoastal cartilage 2. False ribs inferior 5 pairs that connect indirectly (first 3 pairs)to the sternum or do not attach at all to the sternum (last two pairs) 103. Thoracic CageTypes of RibsThe classification of ribs:1. True ribs 1st 7 pairs that attach directly to the sternum by thecoastal cartilage 2. False ribs inferior 5 pairs that connect indirectly (first 3 pairs)to the sternum or do not attach at all to the sternum (last two pairs) 3. Floating ribs the lasttwo pairs of false ribs that arenot attached at all 104. Thoracic CageTypes of RibsThe classification of ribs: 1. True ribs 1st 7 pairs that attach directly to the sternum by thecoastal cartilage 2. False ribs inferior 5 pairs that connect indirectly (first 3 pairs)to the sternum or do not attach at all to the sternum (last two pairs) 3. Floating ribs the last two pairs of false ribs that are notattached at all 105. Thoracic Cage SternumConnects to the ribs viacoastal cartilageShaped like a capital TFound on the ventral/frontsurface 106. Thoracic Cage SternumConnects to the ribs via coastal cartilageShaped like a capital TFound on the ventral/front surfaceIt consists of three parts, from abovedownward:ManubrumBodyXiphoid process </p>