Axial & appendicular

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<ul><li> 1. AXIAL &amp; APPENDICULARSKELETONSFirst part8-Sep-141</li></ul> <p> 2. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM8-Sep-142The skeleton consists of Bones (206) Cartilages Joints LigamentsDivided into axialand appendicular. 3. Functions of Skeletal System1) Support provides solid axis formuscles to act against, creating motion.2) Protection- bones such as skullprovide barrier of protection fromexternal forces.3) Hematopoiesis-production of bloodcells.4) Mineral storage (calcium especially).8-Sep-14 3 4. 22 bones in skull6 in middle ears1 hyoid bone26 in vertebral column25 in thoracic cage4 in pectoral girdle60 in upper limbs60 in lower limbs2 in pelvic girdle206 bones in all4 8-Sep-14 5. Types of Bones Bones are classifiedinto 4 types :-A. LongB. FlatC. IrregularD. short8-Sep-14 5 6. Long BonesFound in the limbs Each bone is made of a body (diaphysis)and two extremities(epiphyses)Wall consists of dense tissueCentral canal called medullary canal isfilled with marrow8-Sep-14 6 7. Short Bones Found in skeletonwhere strength,compactness, andlimited movement aredesired 2 main examplesTarsusCarpus8-Sep-14 7 8. Flat Bones Used in spots whereprotection or muscularattachment is desired Main locations areskull and scapula8-Sep-14 8 9. Irregular Bones Bones which dont fitinto other categoriesdue to irregularshapes Examples: vertebrae,sphenoid, hyoid8-Sep-14 9 10. Axial skeletonSkull.Vertebral column.Thoracic cage.Axial skeleton is shown in green10 8-Sep-14 11. The Skull8-Sep-1411Cranial bones (or cranium) Enclose the cranial cavity, which supports andprotects the brain Attachment sites for some head and neck musclesFacial bones (anterior aspect of skull) Form framework of face. Form cavities for sense organs of light, taste andsmell. Provides openings for passage of air and food. Hold the teeth. Anchor the muscles of the face. 12. Cranial bones8-Sep-1412parietalparietalfrontaltemporalparietaloccipital_______sphenoid_____ethmoidoccipital 13. 8-Sep-1413 14. Facial Bones Mandible- lower jawbone Maxillary bones(maxillae) fusetogether to form upperjaw Palatine processes directly posterior tomaxillae; forms rear ofhard palate8-Sep-14 14 15. Facial Bones Contd. Zygomatic bones cheekbones Lacrimal bones inferior section of orbitalbones; provides passageway for tears Ethmoid bone- forms roof of nasal cavity8-Sep-14 15 16. More Facial Bones Nasal bones- formbridge of nose Vomer divides nasalcavity in half Inferior conchae- thincurved bones whichproject from interior ofnasal cavity8-Sep-14 16 17. 8-Sep-14 17 18. Paranasal sinuses8-Sep-1418 Air-filled sacs in the bones Paranasal because they cluster around andconnect to the nasal cavity 19. Sutures8-Sep-1419 Immovable, interlocking joints of flat bones ofskull Irregular, saw-toothed appearance Largest 4 skull sutures: where bones articulatewith parietal bonesCoronalSagittalSquamousLambdoid 20. Fontanels8-Sep-1420 Unossified remnants ofmembranes Present at birth Anterior fontanel largestCalled soft spotsOssify by 1 - 2 years 21. Hyoid bone8-Sep-1421 Only bone which does notarticulate with any otherbone. Moveable base for thetongue. Points of attachment forneck muscles that raiseand lower the larynxduring swallowing. 22. The Thoracic Cage Made of bones whichconnect and protectheart and lungs Ribs, CostalCartilage, andSternum8-Sep-14 22 23. Ribs 12 pairs of ribs, each connects to a thoracicvertebrae First 7 pairs = true ribs; attach directly tosternum Last 5 pairs = false ribs; indirect or noattachment; last two are floating (no sternalattachment)8-Sep-14 23 24. Typical rib8-Sep-1424 25. SternumFusion of three bones 1) Manubrium (top) 2) Body (middle) 3) Xiphoid Process (bottom)Location for rib attachmentSurrounded by costal cartilage8-Sep-14 25 26. The Vertebral Column8-Sep-1426 Adult: 24 vertebraeInferior 9 have fused formingThe sacrum (5)The coccyx (4) 27. Structure of a typical vertebra8-Sep-1427 28. Cervical Vertebrae8-Sep-1428 Smallest Transverseprocesses haveforamina(transverseforamen) Spinous processbifid (forked) exceptfor C7 29. Thoracic Vertebrae T1-T128-Sep-1429 Heart shapedbody The spinousprocess are long,sharp and directeddownwards 30. Lumbar Vertebrae L1-L58-Sep-1430 Massive blocklikebodies The spinous processesshort, thick, broad anddirected backward 31. Sacrum and Coccyx8-Sep-1431 </p>

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