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  • Automotive

    Ferrites in Automotive,

    EVS and HEVSwww.ferroxcube.com

    •Lowcorelossesatw

    orkingfrequencyandtemperaturetoachieve

    highefficiency•Switchingathigherfrequenciesallow

    ssizeandcostreductionofthemagneticcom

    ponents•Lowprofileshapesarerecom

    mendedtobuildcom

    pactandmodular

    designs

  • FERROXCUBEisamemberoftheYageoGroup,whichisamongtheworld'sstrongestsuppliersofhighqualitypassivecomponents.Asaleadingsupplierofferritecomponents,FERROXCUBEhasmanufacturingoperations,salesoffices,andcustomerservicecentersallovertheworld.Wesupplyoneofthebroadestrangesofhigh-quality,innovativeproductsandplacestrongemphasisonminiaturizationofmagneticfunctions.FerritecomponentsandaccessoriesfromFERROXCUBEareusedinawiderangeofapplications,fromtelecommunicationsandcomputingelectronicsthroughconsumerelectronicproductstoautomotive.

    Powerconversioninhybridandelectricvehicleshasledtonewtechnicalchallengesintheautomotivefield.Whenitcomestopowerconversionsystems,magneticdesignhasagreatimpactnotonlyonefficiency,butalsoonweightandcost.FerroxcubeoffersawidevarietyofcoresfortransformersandinductorsinAutomotive&e-Mobility,optimizedfordifferentconditionsoffrequencyandtemperature.

  • 3

    IntroductionGear Up for Automotive ApplicationsPowerconversioninhybridandelectricvehicleshasledtonewtechnicalchallengesintheautomotivefield.Currently,highvoltagebatteriessupplythepowertothemotoraswellastootherelectronicdevices.Severalstagesandtypesofenergytransformationarerequired.

    Whenitcomestopowerconversionsystem,magneticdesignhasagreatimpactnotonlyonefficiency,butalsoonweightandcost.Applicationsofferritesinhybridandelectriccarsarecountless.ThisapplicationnoteshowsthevarietyofFerroxcube’sshapes,sizesandmaterialsthatcanbecombinedtoachievethehighestefficiencyinapowerconversionsystemdesignforhybridandelectricvehicles.

    Asaleadinginnovatorinferrite-ceramictechnology,Ferroxcubeoffersadvancedmaterialinawidevarietyofcoreshapesfortransformersandinductorsinautomotiveandelectronicvehicleapplications.Ourproductsareoptimizedfordifferentconditionsoffrequencyandtemperature.Recommendedshapes,sizesandgradesareintendedtosupportthemaindesignconsiderations.

    Requirements for Automotive Applications• Lowcorelossesatworkingfrequencyandtemperaturetoachievehighefficiency• Switchingathigherfrequenciesallowssizeandcostreductionofthemagneticcomponents• Lowprofileshapesarerecommendedtobuildcompactandmodulardesigns

    Access Control

    • PassiveEntry,PassiveStart

    Lighting

    • LEDLighting

    • HIDHeadlights

    • LEDHeadlights

    Common for EVS & HEVS

    • DC/DCBattery

    • Interchanger

    • BoostCharger

    • Inverter

    Power Train

    • FuelInjectorBoost

    • StopandGo

    Plug-in & Electric

    • BatteryCharger

    • WirelessCharger

  • 4

    3C96High efficiency, operation up to 400 kHz, high power density

    Automotive Application Matrix

    Function Material Grade Preferred Core Shape Characteristics

    Access Control

    Passive Entry Passive Start On-board antenna 3C90, 3C91, 3C95 Long Bar Temperature stability

    Key antenna X Y axis 4A11, 4A5 Small bar

    Key antenna Z axis 4A11, 4A5 Drum

    Key antenna 3D coil 4A11, 4A5 Multiwinding core

    Lighting

    LED Daylight, Signaling & Convenience

    Inductor in the LED driver 3C95, 3C92 4F5 (in development)

    Drum cores High saturation

    LED Headlights High Power Inductor in the LED driver

    3C92, 3C97 3F36

    Low profile compact mid size Low losses, high saturation

    HID Headlights A transformer to generate high voltage for ignitor

    3C92, 3C97 3F36

    Compact planar or mid size cores (Planar E32, RM8, PQ20..)

    Low losses, high saturation

    Power Train

    Fuel Injector Boost A boost inductor for the DC/DC converter to generate overvoltage

    3C92 PQ32 High saturation

    Stop and Go A boost inductor for the DC/DC converter to generate overvoltage

    3C92, 3C97 PQ, RM, EE High saturation, low loss

    EV & PHEV battery charger

    EMI filter Common mode choke 3E10, 4S2 Mid-large size toroids

    PFC Inductor 3C92 PQ35, RM14 High saturation

    DC/DC converter to battery voltage

    Transformer provides isolation between grid and automotive

    3C95, 3F36 Planar and compact sizes: ER41

    Inductor 3C92, 3F36 Planar and compact sizes: ER41

    IGBT isolation transformer 3C95, 3F36 Small EP or planar Low losses

    Wireless Charger Emitter coil (ground unit) 3C90, 3C95 Large plates Temperature stability

    Receiver coil (vehicle unit) 3C90, 3C95 Large plates Temperature stability

    Auxiliar DC/DC to drive IGBT’s circuitry

    Inductor 3C95 Planar ER23 Low loss

    Current Sensing Current transformer 3E27 Toroids High perm., temp and B stable

    Hall sensor 3E27, 3E10 Toroids High perm., temp and B stable

    HEV, EV, PHEV

    DC/DC bidirectional HV battery to 12 V battery

    Transformer provides isolation between HV and low voltage

    3C95, 3F36 Planar and compact sizes: ER41 Low loss

    Inductor 3C92, 3F36 Planar and compact sizes: ER41 High saturation

    Auxiliar DC/DC to drive IGBT’s circuitry

    Inductor 3C95 Planar ER23 Low loss

    Current Sensing Current transformer 3E27 EP, toroids High perm., temp and B stable

    Hall sensor 3E27 Gapped toroids, UU, custom High perm., temp and B stable

  • 5

    FerritesforadvancedautomotiveelectricalsystemsAccess control: Passive Entry Passive Start (PEPS)PassiveEntryPassiveStartsystemsarebasedon2frequencies:aUHFdatacarrierthattransmitsencryptedcodesandalowfrequency(125-134kHz)signalthatstartsthetransmission,wakingupthekeywhenthedrivertouchesanyofthedoors.Theselowfrequencysignalsareemittedbyferriteantennaslocatedinseveralplacesinthecar(sides,frontandback)toensurefullcoveragearoundit,andalsointhedriverkey.Thecaremitterantennasarepowerfulenoughtoinduceacurrentinthekeyreceiverantennatowakeitup,startingthecommunicationprotocol.

    TheantennasarebasedonaresonantLCcircuittunedat125kHzaccordingto:On board antennasThemostcommonshapeforthisfunctionisarectangularbarranging60to90mmlong. Tighttoleranceoninductanceisneededtokeepconstantandreliabletuning.Thiscanbeachievedby:

    • Lowspreadonmechanicaldimensionsoftheferritecores,easingthewindingprocess.Ferroxcubehascapabilitiestomachineallsidesoftheproduct.

    • Thermallystablematerial.Ferroxcube3C95materialoffersoptimaltemperaturestability

    Optimalantennasensitivitystronglydependsonferritemateriallossfactor.FerroxcubeprovidesseveralsolutionswithhighQualityFactor(Qfactor):preferredmaterialsare3C90,3C91and3C95.

    5000

    50 50 2500

    150

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    μ i

    T (°C)

    3C90 h a n d b o o k , h a lfp a g e10000

    50 50 2500

    150

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    µ i

    T ( C)°

    3C91 handbook, halfpage10000

    50 50 2500

    150

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    μ i

    T ( C)°

    3C95

    Initial permeability as a function of temperature

    h a n d b o o k , h a lfp a g e

    1 10 102

    104

    f (MHz)

    μ' ,s μ''s

    103

    102

    1010-1

    3C91

    μ''s

    µ' s

    Complex permeability as a function of frequency

  • 6

    Key antennasThekeyneeds3antennas,oneforeachaxis,insuchawaythatdoesn’tmatterwhatthepositionofthekeyis,sothat,thefieldwillbedetected.

    Theantennashavetofitinthethincreditcardsizedkey,thusalowprofileisamust.Themostcommonshapeisarectangularbar10mmlong.TheZaxisissensedwithalowprofiledrumcore.

    ThepreferredmaterialsarehighresistivityNickelZincenablingthepossibilitytowinddirectlyonthecore.Ferroxcubepreferredmaterialsare4A11andtemperaturestable4A5(indevelopment).

    LightingNewdevelopmentsinlightingtechnologyhaveimprovedstronglytheefficiencyofthesystems,reducingtheconsumptionandincreasingthelifetimewhencomparedwithtraditionalincandescentlamps.Butthesetechnologies,includingLEDandHIDlampsrequirespecificpowerconversionsystemsusingcurrentcontrolledLEDdriversorignitersinthecaseofHID.

    LEDdriversuseaninductortostoretheenergyontheDC/DCconverter.Thereareseveralsolutionsdependingonthepower:

    • LowpowerLED’s(daylight,signaling)useverycommonpowerinductors.Ferroxcubeoffersdrumcoresin4F5materialexhibitinghighsaturationfluxandlowlosses(indevelopment).

    • Headlights:duetothehigherpower,itispreferredtousehighefficiencymaterialsandshapes.Ferroxcube3C92exhibitsthehighestsaturationflux(460mTat100ºC),while3C97haslowlossatalltemperatures.Forhighswitchingfrequency(>400kHz)3F36istheoptimalchoice.ThepreferredshapesarecompactPQ20orRM8coresandalsoplanarcores.

    HIDignitersuseahighfrequencytransformertoboostthevoltageforthehighvoltagegeneratorgenerator.Samematerialsmaterialsandshapesarepreferred:3C92duetoitshighBsat,3C97forlowlossesandthermalstabilityand3F36for>400kHzoperationandthermalstability,usingPQ,RMandplanarcores.

    h a n d b o o k , h a lfp a g e10000

    50 50 2500

    150

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    µ i

    T (°C)

    3C9710000

    50 50 250 3500

    150

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    μ i

    T ( °C)

    3C92

    −50 50 2500

    150

    1000

    2000

    μi

    T (°C)

    3F36

    Initial permeability as a function of temperature

    1 10 102

    104

    f (MHz)

    μ' ,s μ''s

    103

    102

    1010-1

    4A11

    μ''s

    μ' s

    Complex permeability as a function of frequency

  • 7

    Auto stop and start boost converterFuelconsumptioncanbeoptimizedusingautostopandstartsystemsthatshutdowntheenginewhilethecarisstoppedandinneutral.Whentheclutchispressed,theenginestartsquicklyagainusingahighpowerstartermotor.Duringcrankingthebatteryvoltagedropsfrom12Voltsto10orevenless.AboostDC/DCconverterkeepsastablesupplytoallelectricsystems(airconditioning,radio,lights…)preventingthemfromswitchingoffduringthisdrop.

    FerroxcubeoffersseveralmaterialssuitedfortheinductorinthisboostDC/DCconverter:3C92withitshighBsat(460mTat100ºC)and3C97withlowlossateverytemperaturearespeciallysuitedforoperationbelow400kHz.CommonshapesarePQ,RMandEcores.

    Fuel injector boost converterFueldistributioninthecylindercanbeimprovedwhentheinjectorsarestartedwithashortovervoltage.ThisovervoltagecanbeaccomplishedusingaDC/DCboostconverterwhichismanagedbytheinjectiondriver.Ferroxcubeoffers3C92highsaturationmaterialinPQ26andothershapesforoptimaloperationoftheconverter.

  • 8

    FerritesforhybridandelectriccarsElectricalpowerconversiononhybrid,pluginhybridandelectriccarsisoneofthekeyparametersonthecarautonomyandefficiency.Electricalpowerisgenerated,storedandconsumedatdifferentlevelsandevenfrequencies.Eachoftheconversionstepsusesferritesfordifferentfunctions:energystorage,filtering,shielding,galvanicisolationortransformation.

    Ferroxcubeprovideshighendcosteffectivesolutionsforallthosefunctions,supportingcustomersonoptimaldesignwhenneeded.

    Mains

    Common to HEV, EV

    Highvoltagebattery

    DC/DC(bidirectional)

    Inverter(bidirectional)

    Servicebattery12Volt

    ACmotor

    Battery Charger

    EMIFilter

    PFC

    DC/DC

    Wirelessreceiver

    Wirelessemitter

    OnboardsystemsPHEV,EV

    Grid connected battery charger

    ThisunittransformsthepowerfromthegridtohighvoltageDCtobestoredinthevehiclebattery.Thepowerrangesfrom3to20kw(orevenmore)dependingonthechargingspeed.Generallythesystemconsistsof3units:

    • EMIfilter:commonmodechokespreventEMInoisegoingtothegrid.Ferroxcubeprovideshighpermeabilityandextendedbandwidthtoroidsinafullrangeofsizes.Optimalmaterialsare3E10,3E27forlowfrequency(below20MHz)EMIsuppressionand4S2forhighfrequency(upto300MHz).

    • PowerFactorCorrector:highsaturation3C92withdistributedairgapcoresareoptimalforthisfunction.Customdesigniscommonlyusedtofitthecoreinthehousing.

    • DC/DCconvertertobatteryvoltage:commonlyaboostconverterwithgalvanicisolation.Thepreferredmaterialsare3C95(lowlossatwidetemperaturerange,400kHz)onboththeinductorandtransformerusingplanarorPQcores.SwitchescanbeisolatedaswellusingsmallEPorEFDcores.

  • 9

    Ground fault interrupterHighpermeabilitycores(3E10,10kpermeability)canbeusedfordetectionofcurrentleakagetoground.Whenthereisamismatchbetweenlineandneutralthesecondarywindinggeneratesasignalproportionaltothemismatch,whichcanbeusedtostopthecharging.

    Wireless chargerInductivewirelesschargersenablethepossibilityofchargingthecarwithoutpluggingittothegrid.Safetyisoneofthemajorbenefits:thevehicleiscompletelyisolatedfromthegrid,allowingthepossibilityoftransferringhighpowerwithouttheneedtohavealowresistancegroundconnection.

    Thechargingcoilsare“shielded”withferritetilestodrivethefieldtoeachother.Ferroxcubecanprovidetilesinawidevarietyofsizesandthicknesseson3C95lowlosswidetemperaturematerialandalsoincostcompetitive3C90.

    Bidirectional battery chargerThisunitexchangesenergybetweenthehighvoltagebattery(commonly200or400Volts)totheservicebattery(12Volts).ThisunitisanisolatedDC/DCbuckboostconverterhandling3kw.

    Thepreferredinductormaterialsare3C92and3C95forthetransformer.Shapesaregenerallyplanarmagneticswhichcanbeeasilyparalleledandconnectedtoaheatsink,butothershapesarealsoavailable.

    Auxiliary power suppliesAuxiliarypowersuppliesareusedtopowertheElectronicControlUnits(ECU)andtheswitchingcircuitry.Powercanbeobtainedfromeitherthehighvoltagebattery,orfromtheservicebattery,andreliabilityisamustforsafetyreasons.Thepreferredmaterialis3C95usingsmallormidsizecores(planarER32,PQ20).

    Current sensingItispossibletouseferritecoresforcurrentsensorsin2differentways:

    • Currenttransformer:onlyapplicabletoAClines.Thesecondarysuppliesacurrentproportionaltothemeasuredcurrentontheprimary.Thematerialsare3E27and3E10onsmallEPcoresortoroids.• CombinedwithaHalleffectsensor.Thesensorislocatedinthecoreairgap.BothACandDCcurrentscanbemeasured.Thepreferredmaterialsare3E27and3E10ongappedtoroidsorEcores.

    Current in equals current out

    Comparatorcircuit

  • 10

    Preferred Materials

    Power conversion materials: Low frequency

    • Lowfrequency:300kHz

    • Improvedtemperatureperformance

    EMI suppression materials

    • 4S2:HighfrequencyEMIsuppression

    • 3E27:HighTc,lowfrequencyEMIsuppression

    • 3E10:Lowfrequency,highimpedanceEMIsuppression

    Symbol Conditions Value Unit

    3C90 3C91 3C95

    µi 25°C ,10 kHz , 0.25 mT 2300 ±20% 3000 ±20% 3000 ±20%

    µa 100°C, 25 kHz, 200 mT ≈ 5500 ≈ 5500 ≈ 5000

    Bsat 25°C ,10 kHz ,1.2 kA/m ≈ 470 ≈ 470 ≈ 530 mT

    10°C ,10 kHz ,1.2 kA/m ≈ 380 ≈ 370 ≈ 410

    PV 100°C, 100 kHz , 100 mT ≈ 80 ≈ 40 ≈ 40 kw/m3

    100°C, 100 kHz , 200 mT ≈ 450 ≈ 300 ≈ 290

    ρ 25°C, DC ≈ 5 ≈ 5 ≈ 5 Ωm

    TC ≥ 220 ≥ 220 ≥ 215 °C

    Density ≈ 4800 ≈ 4800 ≈ 4800 kg/m3

    Symbol Conditions Value Unit

    3E10 3E27 4S2

    µi 25 °C; ≤10 kHz, 0.25 mT 10000±20% 6000±20% ≈ 850

    Bsat 25 °C; 10 kHz, 1200 A/m ≈ 460 ≈ 430 ≈ 340 mT

    100 °C; 10 kHz, 1200 A/m ≈ 270 ≈ 270 ≈ 230

    tanδ/µi 25 °C; 30 kHz; 0.25 mT ≤ 5 x 10-6

    25 °C; 100 kHz; 0.25 mT ≤ 20 x 10-6 ≤ 15 x 10-6

    ηB 25 °C; 10 kHz; 1.5 to 3 mT ≤ 0.5 x 10-3 T-1

    ρ DC; 25 °C ≈ 0.5 ≈ 0.5 ≈ 105 Ωm

    TC ≥130 ≥150 ≥125 °C

    Density ≈ 5000 ≈ 4800 ≈ 5000 kg/m3

    Symbol Conditions Value Unit

    3F36

    µi 25°C ,10 kHz , 0.25 mT 1600 ±20%

    µa 100°C, 25 kHz, 200 mT ≈ 2400

    Bsat 25°C ,10 kHz ,1.2 kA/m ≈ 520 mT

    10°C ,10 kHz ,1.2 kA/m ≈ 420

    PV 100°C, 500 kHz , 50 mT ≈ 90 kw/m3

    25°C, 500 kHz , 100 mT

    100°C, 500 kHz , 100 mT ≈ 700

    ρ 25°C, DC ≈ 8 Ωm

    TC ≥ 230 °C

    Density ≈ 4750 kg/m3

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    PrintedinPoland Documentordernumber:FXC10000007 Dateofrelease:May2014

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