automation of surface irrigation systems

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  • AutomationofSurfaceIrrigationSystems

    Khaled Bali,TomGill(USBR),DaleLentz(USBR),DanieleZaccaria(UCD),DanPutnam(UCD),RachaelLong(Yolo),DanielMunk(Fresno),BlakeSanden

    (Kern)

    [email protected]archandExtensionCenter

    Holtville,CA

  • Phase1:CooperatingPartners ImperialValley(2011Date) UCCE/UCDesertResearchandExtensionCenter(DREC)

    USBureauofReclamationYumaAreaOfficeWaterConservationFieldServicesProgram

    USBureauofReclamationScience&TechnologyProgram

    USBureauofReclamationHydraulicInvestigationsandLaboratoryServicesGroup

    ControlDesignInc.(DREC),RubiconWater(DREC&commercialfield)

    AlfalfaGrower

  • Phase2:CooperatingPartners(20142017) UCCE(Imperial,Kern,Fresno,andYolo)andUCD(DanieleandDan

    Putnam) fourlocations

    CaliforniaDepartmentofWaterResources

    USBureauofReclamationScience&TechnologyProgram

    USBureauofReclamationHydraulicInvestigationsandLaboratoryServicesGroup

    ControlDesignInc.,RubiconWater,Observant,(tule ETsensors?)

    AlfalfaGrowers

  • California

    Alfalfa is Californias largest agricultural water user

    - About 1 million acre of alfalfa

    - About 4.0 - 5.5 million ac-ft of water per year

    Surface (flood) irrigation is the primary method of irrigation for alfalfa and other field crops in California

    Imperial Valley (2015): 128,623 acres (140,134 acres same month last year) Water use 6.5-7 ac-ft/ac

  • Irrigation Methods in California:

    1- Surface irrigation (flood):- Border strip (flat) irrigation (slope 0.1-0.2%)

    - Furrow irrigation (slope)

    - Basin irrigation (zero slope)

    2- Sprinkler Irrigation (various types)

    3- Drip Irrigation (various types)

    - Surface drip

    - Subsurface drip

  • Surface irrigation:

    - Water application methods where water is applied over the soil surface by gravity (no energy is needed).

    - Most common irrigation system throughout the world

    - Has been used for thousands of years

    - Land leveling practices over the past century made it more efficient

    - High efficiency possible on medium and heavy soils

  • Surface irrigation methods:

    - Border (flat) irrigation

    Runoff rate: 5-20% (vary)

    - Furrow (bed) irrigationRunoff rate: 15-30% (vary)

    Surface runoff: Water losses: lower efficiencyNutrient losses: surface runoff & deep percolation

    Pesticides losses: mostly surface runoff &

    some with deep percolation

    * Usually no runoff with basin irrigation

  • d

    zSubsurface

    Surface Irrigation

    L Surface runoff (B)

    Root zone storage (A)

    Deep percolation (C)

    Applied water = Root zone storage + runoff + deep percolation

  • OnFarmWaterConservation=HigherApplicationEfficiency(AE)

    ApplicationEfficiency(AE)=A/(A+B+C)Toachievehigherefficiency,reduceBand/orC

    BUTNeedtohaveabalance,DeepPercolationsometimesisneededforsalinitycontrol

    (650ppm~0.9tonsofsalt/acft )RunoffisneededforUniformity(100%AEmeansunderirrigation)

    DEEP PERCOLATION + Runoff

    B + C

    Evapotranspiration (ET)+

    A +

    IRRIGATION =

  • AutomatedSurfaceIrrigationFieldTestSite

    Borderirrigatedfield

    60wideborders

    1200runlengthSupplyCanal

    RunoffCanal

    FlowMeasurement

  • Typical low desert 80-acre alfalfa field- flow rate, Q: 15-20 cfs- Border length: 1200-1,250 ft- Border width: 60-205 ft- Slope: ~ 1.5 ft/1000 ft - Water use: ~ 6.5-7 ac-ft/ac per year- Runoff rate: ~ 15-20%- No. of irrig.: ~ 16-18 events (24 hr per irrig.)- Irrigation labor: ~ $5,100/year (80-ac)

  • d

    z

    Surface

    Subsurface

    Surface

    Subsurface

    L

    L

    Volume applied= Surface storage +Subsurface storageflow rate*time= d*L + z*L

  • AutomationofSurfaceIrrigationSystems

    Irrigatorstypicallyworkin24hrshifts

    Makedecisionsonwhentoturnthewateroffbasedonanumberofvariables(flowrate,advancerate,cropheight,etc)

    Automation:smartdecisionsbasedonaccurateandrealtimedata(flowrate,advancerate,automatedgates,ETc,andothervariables)

  • Optimization (Automation of surface irrigation systems)- The process of considering all flood irrigation variables to

    improve on-farm irrigation efficiency

    - Adjust irrigation time to allow for changing crop roughness (height and density of the crop)

    - Adjusting border/set length to allow for variable soil type across the field

    - Adjusting flow rate to an irrigation set (one or more border/land) to improve efficiency

    - Computer simulation models are needed

    - Accurate measurements during irrigation events (flow rate and advance rate)

  • Optimization Soiltype114&115(heavysoils) lowerflowrateorhighflowratewillworkdependingonthetimeoftheyear(considerations:erosionrate&scalding) Soiltype106or110(lightersoil) higherflowratetoincreaseefficiency Soiltype115&106(changeflowrateduringtheirrigationevent)

  • AutomatedSurfaceIrrigation:

    PreviousUCCEUSBRefforts(unsuccessful)Now80acfield(hasstateoftheartsystem)

    MotorizationofExistingGates:

    ExistingPortGates GatesMotorizedw/LinearActuators

  • AutomatedSurfaceIrrigation:

    CurrentProject:TurnoutFlowControlPrototypes

    HydraulicOperatedTurnoutPinchValveTurnout

  • AutomatedSurfaceIrrigation:

    CurrentProject:TurnoutFlowControlPrototypes

    TipUpTurnoutTarpGateTurnout

  • AutomationofSurfaceIrrigationSystems

  • AutomatedSurfaceIrrigationAutomationDemonstrationLayout

  • TurnoutSystemCompatiblewithAutomatedOperation:

    TarpGateTurnout

    Linear Actuator Operator

    2 Rectangular Frames, Vertical Stationary Frame Hinged Frame

    Fitted Tarp

  • TurnoutSystemCompatiblewithAutomatedOperation:

    TarpGateTurnout

    DropInInstallation&SelfContainedSystem

  • TurnoutSystemCompatiblewithAutomatedOperation:TarpGateTurnout

    CanalBankorCulvertOutletInstallation

  • AutomatedSurfaceIrrigationFieldTest:

    AutomationSystemStations

    FlowMeasurement MainControlStation

  • AutomatedSurfaceIrrigationFieldTest:

    FlowMeasurement

    [email protected]

    Thirdlevelmeasuredtomonitorcanalfillbelowflume

  • AutomatedSurfaceIrrigationFieldTest:

    AutomationSystemStations

    TurnoutStations

  • AutomatedSurfaceIrrigationFieldTest:AutomationSystemStations

    FieldAdvanceSensingStation

  • AutomatedSurfaceIrrigationFieldTest:

    AutomationSystemStations

    FieldRunoffMeasurementStation

  • AutomationOperatingCycle:Startup

    MainControl(MC)

    MCplacedinAutoMode

    MCmonitorscanalfill MCkeepsrunning

    averageflowrate

  • AutomationOperatingCycle:OnceCanalhasFilled StartIrrigation

    MainControl(MC)

    FieldAdvance(FA)

    Section1Gate(G1)

    MCactivatesFA MCopensG1 MCcomputesinc vol MCkeepssectvol total MCkeepsfieldvol total

  • AutomationOperatingCycle:[email protected]

    MainControl(MC)FieldAdvance(FA)Section1Gate(G1)Section2Gate(G2)RunoffStation(RO)

    FAalertsMC MCidentifiesTgt Vol MCopensG2 MCclosesG1 MCActivatesRO MCestimatesendingtime

  • AutomationOperatingCycle:Section1RunoffMeasurementComplete

    MainControl(MC)Section2Gate(G2)RunoffStation(RO)

    ROreportsROVol toMC MCcomparesROVol &Tgt Vol MCadjustsTgt Vol ifneeded MCestimatesendingtime

  • AutomationOperatingCycle:TargetVolumereachedforSection2

    (&subsequentsections)

    MainControl(MC)Section2Gate(G2)Section3Gate(G3)

    MCopensG3 MCclosesG2 MCupdatesestimated

    endingtime

  • AutomationOperatingCycle:EndofIrrigation

    MainControl(MC)SectionnGate(Gn)

    MCinalertmode Activitiesforendof

    irrigationexpectedtobesitespecific

  • AutomationOperatingCycle:Operationw/FieldAdvanceSensorinEachSection

    MainControl(MC)SectionnGate(Gn)FieldAdvancen(FAn)

    FAn(s)placedatcutofflocations

    OneormultipleFAunitsmaybeused

    FAplacementmaybeadjustedfromsectiontosection

  • InflowVariation,11/05/2014FieldTest

  • AutomatedSurfaceIrrigationFieldTestAdditionalsystemcomponents:

    OfficeBaseStation

  • AutomatedSurfaceIrrigationFieldTestAdditionalsystemcomponents:

    PortableStation

  • AutomatedSurfaceIrrigationFieldTest:

    CurrentProjectStatus:

    Programmingforbasicfunctionshasbeendevelopedandtestedforeachstationtype

    UsermenufunctionsofMainControlprogramarecurrentlybeingrefined

    MainControlprogrammingformultiplefieldsensoroptionisbeingdeveloped.

  • SummaryandDesiredOutcomes

    Waterconservation(reducingrunofftolessthan5%ofappliedwater)

    Laborsavings(oneirrigatorper4fieldsvs 1irrigatorperfield)

    Valueofconservedwater(currently$285peracftinIIDservicearea)

    Droughtandlimitedwatersupplies(deficitirrigatethelowerendofthefield)

  • Thankyou