automatic railway gate controller documentation

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MINI PROJECT REPORT ON Automatic Railway Gate Controller Using Stepper Motor SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE REWARD OF THE DEGREE BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

SUBMITTED BY M.KAVITHA P.MAHESH YADAV K.SAIDIVYAUNDER THE ESTEEMED GUIDANCE OF INTERNAL GUIDE Mr.P.ABBAIAH M.Tech Associate Professor Department of E.C.E S.R.T.I.S.T, Nalgonda. EXTERNAL GUIDE S.KISHORE Project Manager NSIC Hyderabad.

06141A0408 06141A0423 06141A0457

Department of electronics and communication engineeringSWAMI RAMANANDA TIRTHA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, NALGONDA (NBA Accredited) (Affiliated to J.N.T.U., Hyderabad) Nalgonda-508004 2009-2010

SWAMI RAMANANDA TIRTHA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY NALGONDA -508004Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATECertified that this is a miniproject report entitled Automatic Railway Gate Controller Is a bonafide work done byM.KAVITHA P.MAHESH YADAV K.SAIDIVYA 06141A0408 06141A0423 06141A0457

Of final year, Electronics and Communication Engineering branch submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of B.Tech, degree of the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, 2009-2010Project Guide Mr.P.ABBAIAH M.Tech Associate Professor Department of E.C.E Head of the Department Mr.P.Lachi Reddy,M.tech,ph.D Professor Department of E.C.E

S.R.T.I.S.T, Nalgonda. Principal Dr.S.YADAGIRI S.R.T.I.S.T, Nalgonda

S.R.T.I.S.T, Nalgonda.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIt is our privilege to express our deep gratitude and indebtedness to our Management & Principal Mr.S.Yadagiri of Swami Ramananda Tirtha Institute of Science and Technology,Nalgonda for their moral support. We thank Mr.P.Lachi Reddy,Profeesor & Head of Electronics and Communication Engineering Department,for his valuable suggestions and cooperation in the completion of the mini project. We solemnly offer our sincere gratitude to our internal guide,Mr.P.Abbiah Depatment of Electronics and Communication,whose constant encouragement and cooperation has made this miniproject successful. It is a great pleasure to complete our miniproject in NSIC under the guidance of Mr.S.Kishore Kumar,we highly grateful to them for their encouragement and open minded discussion during the mini project work. We express our heartful thanks to those who have directly or indirectly helped us in carrying out this mini project successful. Last but not least we are thankful to our parents.who have stood behind us at all the stages of the mini project.

Project associates M.KAVITHA ( 06141A0408) P.MAHESH YADAV (06141A0423) K.SAIDIVYA ( 06141A0457)

ABSTRACTThis project work aims at the design, development, fabrication and testing of working model entitled Automatic Railway Gate Controller. It is basically related to Radio communication and signalling system. An Automatic Railway gate controller is unique in which the railway gate is closed and opened or operated by the Train itself by eliminating the chances of human errors. The largest public sector in India is the Railways. The network of Indian Railways covering the length and breath of Indian Railways covering the length and breath of our country is divided into nine Railway zones for operational convenience. The railway tracks criss-cross the state Highways and of course village road along their own length. The points or places where the Railway track in accidents leading to loss of precious lives. crosses the road are called level crossings. Level crossings cannot be used simultaneously both by road traffic and trains, as this result

INDEXS.no01

List of contentsIntroduction 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Block diagram & Description

page No

01 02-03

02

Introduction to microcontroller 2.1 Introduction to micro controller 2.2 AT 89C51 Microcontroller 04-05 06-10

03

Stepper motor 3.1 Introduction to stepper motor 3.2 types & applications. 11-13 14 -16

04

ULN 2003 4.1 Introduction to ULN 2003 4.2 Pin description of ULN 2003 17-18 19-21

05

LM 324 5.1 LM 324 & Features 22-23 24

06 07

Light Dependable Resistor Interfacing Devices 7.1 Interfacing of Stepper Motor with ULN2003

25-27

7.2 Stepper Motor Interfacing with AT89C51 7.3 Interfacing of Lm324 with At89c51 8 Regulated Power Supply 8.1 Regulated Power Supply & Features 9 10 11 Software Conclusion Bibliography

28-29 30-31

33-35 36-40 42 43-44

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTIONAim of this project is to control the unmanned rail gate automatically using embedded platform. Today often we see news papers very often about the railway accidents happening at un- attended railway gates. Present project is designed to avoid such accidents if implemented in spirit. This project is developed in order to help the INDIAN RAILWAYS in making its present working system a better one, by eliminating some of the loopholes existing in it. Based on the responses and reports obtained as a result of the significant development in the working system of INDIAN RAILWAYS, This project can be further extended to meet the demands according to situation. This can be further implemented to have control room to regulate the working of the system. Thus becomes the user friendliness. In this project AT89c51 Micro controller Integrated Chip plays the main role. The program for this project is embedded in this Micro controller Integrated Chip and interfaced to all the peripherals. The timer program is inside the Micro controller IC to maintain all the functions as per the scheduled time. Stepper motors are used for the purpose of gate control interfaced with current drivers chip ULN2003 its a 16 pin IC.

Features: There is no time lag to operate the device Accuracy.

1

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

REGULATED POWER SUPPLY

89C51 MICRO CONTROLLER

ULN 2003

STEPPER MOTOR

LM 324

LIGHT DEPENDANT RESISTOR

Fig 1. 1.1 Block Diagram of AUTOMATIC RAILWAY GATE CONTROLLER

2

1.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION:AT89C51 is a 40 pin dip micro controller, can be divided in to four ports, it is driven by 5v supply. In this project Atmel 89c51 Micro controller Integrated Chip plays the main role. The program for this project is embedded in this Micro controller Integrated Chip and interfaced to all the peripherals. The timer program is inside the Micro controller IC to maintain all the functions as per the scheduled time. The Light dependent resistor is interfaced to Atmel 89c51 Micro controller to display the message, stepper motors are used for the purpose of gate control interfaced with current drivers chip ULN2003. ULN2003 is a current driver chip used for supply control to the stepper motor; it is a 16 pin dip. Here a stepper motor is used for controlling the gates. A stepper motor is a widely used device that translates electrical pulses into mechanical movement. They function as their name suggests - they step a little bit at a time. Steppers dont simply respond to a clock signal. They have several windings which need to be energized in the correct sequence before the motors shaft will rotate. Reversing the order of the sequence will cause the motor to rotate the other way.This project work aims at the design, development, fabrication and testing of working model entitled Automatic Railway Gate Controller. It is basically related to Radio communication and signalling system. An Automatic Railway gate controller is unique in which the railway gate is closed and opened or operated by the Train itself by eliminating the chances of human errors.The largest public sector in India is the Railways. The network of Indian Railways covering the length and breath of Indian Railways covering the length and breath of our country is divided into nine Railway zones for operational convenience. The railway tracks criss-cross the state Highways and of course village road along their own length. The points or places where the Railway track

crosses the road are called level crossings. Level crossings cannot be used simultaneously both by road traffic and trains, as this result in accidents leading to loss of precious lives.

3

CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER

4

2.1 INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER:A computer-on-a-chip is a variation of a microprocessor, which combines the processor core (CPU), some memory, and I/O (input/output) lines, all on one chip. The computer-on-a-chip is called the microcomputer whose proper meaning is a computer using a (number of) microprocessor(s) as its CPUs, while the concept of the microcomputer is known to be a microcontroller. A microcontroller can be viewed as a set of digital logic circuits integrated on a single silicon chip. This chip is used for only specific applications.

ADVANTAGES OF MICROCONTROLLER:A designer will use a Microcontroller to 1. Gather input from various sensors 2. Process this input into a set of actions 3. Use the output mechanisms on the Microcontroller to do something useful 4. RAM and ROM are inbuilt in the MC. 5. Multi machine control is possible simultaneously. 6. ROM, EPROM, [EEPROM] or Flash memory for program and operating parameter storage.

Examples:8051, 89C51 (ATMAL), PIC (Microchip), Motorola (Motorola), ARM Processor,

Applications: Cell phones, Computers, Robots, Interfacing to two pcs.

5

2.2 AT89C51 MICTROCONTROLLER:Description:The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chi