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<ul><li> 1. Australian Prehistory: Humans are thought to have arrived in Australia about 30,000 years ago. The original inhabitants, who have descendants to this day, are known as aborigines. In the eighteenth century, the aboriginal population was about 300,000. The aborigines, who have been described alternately as nomadic hunter-gatherers and fire-stick farmers (known for using fire to clear the brush and attract grass-eating animals instead of cultivating the land), settled primarily in the well-watered coastal areas.</li></ul> <p> 2. Some observers believe that poor treatment of the environment by aborigines over many centuries may have led to the barren nature of much of the Australian interior. Higher forms of mammals never reached Australia because the land bridge from Asia ceased to exist about 50 million years ago. 3. European Discovery and Settlement to 1850: The period ofEuropean discovery and settlement began on August 23, 1770,when Captain James Cook of the British Royal Navy tookpossession of the eastern coast of Australia in the name ofGeorge III. His party had spent four months in exploration alongeastern Australia, from south to north. Unlike Dutch explorers,who deemed the land of doubtful value and preferred to focus onthe rich Indies to the north, Cook and Joseph Banks of the RoyalSociety, who accompanied Cook for scientific observations,reported that the land was more fertile. Cooks famein Britain helped to fix the attention of the British governmenton the area, which had some strategic significance in theEuropean wars of the late eighteenth and early nineteenthcenturies. 4. eventually brought a total of about 160,000 prisoners to Australia. The initial character of a penal colony lasted for about 60 years in the areas of major original settlement. It ended in 1840 in New South Wales and in 1852 in Van Diemens Land (modern Tasmania), which became a colony in 1825. Western Australia, which was founded in 1830 by free immigrants, added convicts to its population by its own choice from 1850 to 1868. Convicts were not sent to South Australia, which became a colony in 1836. 5. Captain James Cook 6. NameDateNew Year1 JanuaryAustralia Day 26 JanuaryLabour Day2nd Monday in MarchGood Friday Friday before EasterSaturday before Easter Sunday Day before EasterEaster Monday Day after EasterAnzac Day 25 AprilQueens Birthday2nd Monday in JuneMelbourne Cup Day 1st Tuesday of November*Christmas 25 DecemberBoxing Day26 DecemberIn this section I will present you aboutthe Holidays in Australia ,so lets go. 7. The Australian currencyAustralia was the first country in the world to have a complete system ofbank notes based on plastic (polymer). These notes provide much greater security against counterfeiting. They also last four times as long as conventional paper (fibrous) notes.The innovative technology by which the notes are produced, developedentirely in Australia, offers artists brilliant scope for the creation of images that ref lect the histories and natural environments of their countries. At the same time the polymer notes are cleaner than papernotes and easily recyclable. Australias currency consists of coins of five, 10, 20 and 50 cent and one and two dollar denomination; and notes offive, 10, 20, 50 and 100 dollar denomination.The Reserve Bank of Australia has information on current Notes / Bills &amp; Coins 8. One. Australian economy. Australias economy grew steadily from 1998-2012 averagedabout 3.3 percent per year as the developed countries first.That could recover from the financial crisis, the U.S. andthe world in 2008 by GDP in 2011 with the (GDP) ofapproximately U.S. $ 1,300 billion and is ranked the 13thlargest economy in the world (measured by nominal GDP). 9. In 2011, the Australian economy continues to grow. The rate of accumulation of gross domestic product in the year 2010 is 3.5 percent of percent of 3.0 and is expected to increase steadily in 2012 to recover from the flooding at the end of 2010 and stimulate investment. of the private sector in the mining and export of commodities, including iron and minerals which promote overall economy in Australia driven continuously. Although available in retail (Retail services) and tourism industry is still recovering. 10. Australias diverse culture and lifestyle reflect its liberal democratic traditions and values, geographic Australia is a product of a unique blend of established traditions and new influences. The countrys original inhabitants, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, are the custodians of one of the worlds oldest continuing 11. Australian fashion mostly is relaxed and playful than in Europe. Due to the warm weather and outdoor lifestyle including a multiplicity of cultural influences. 12. The types of clothing that people wear reflect the diversity in Australian society and the variations in climate. How ever, Australia does not have an official national dress. 13. Country music R&amp;B and soul music Rock and pop Hardcore metal Hip-hop Classical music Jazz 14. ustralian cuisine has the most diverse range, quality,and inventiveness than many others in the world. Forexample Fish and Chips , BBQ , Beef Pie. 15. Them speak English languages mostly and,The most commonly spoken languages afterEnglishare Italian, Greek, Cantonese, Arabic, Vietnameseand Mandarin. Australians speak more than 200languages, including Indigenous Australianlanguages. 16. Australia is a predominantly Christian country, with around 64 per cent of all Australians identifying as Christians. However, most other major religious faiths are also practised, reflecting Australias culturally diverse society. 17. 1. Australia Economy , March 9 , 2012 fromhttp://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/australia/2. History of Australia, 2012 , fromhttp://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/History/Australia-history.htm3. Public holidays in Australia.December 6, 2012, fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_holidays_in_Australia4. People, culture and lifestyle. February 2012 , fromhttp://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/people_culture.html </p>

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