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    Curso On-Line Ponto dos ConcursosIngls - SENADO

    EXERCCIOS COMENTADOS E DICAS

    Profa.: Vladia Mattar Hudson

    Profa. Vladia Mattar www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 1

    H i Ev e r y o n e ! How is it going?

    Espero que todos estejam bem e animados para o estudo!!A hint for you: pensamentopositivo tu-do! Comece a visualizar vocchegando para trabalhar no Senado , feliz e realizado ...faa tambm essetreinomental. K e e p u p t h e g o o d v i b e !

    Preparei esta aula com cuidado e carinho f o r y o u . En j o y i t ! !

    Nossa Aula 2est estruturada da seguinte forma:

    AULA 2

    Parte1 Questes: CESPE/CNPQ/2011; Quadrix/dataprev/2010;FGV/Senado/2008;gabaritadas e comentadas

    Parte 2 Questes INDITAS

    Parte 3 Teoria e Dicas

    Parte 4 Lista de questes desta aula e gabarito seco

    Parte 1 Questes gabaritadas e comentadas

    CESP E/ CNPQ / 2 0 1 1 / COMUN I CA O SOCI A L

    Text 1

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    Profa. Vladia Mattar www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 2

    Scientists publish their original research in scientific journals, whichare fundamentally different from news magazines.The articles in scientific journals are not written by

    4journalists they are written by scientists. Scientific articlesare not sensational stories intended to entertain the reader withan amazing discovery, nor are they news stories intended to

    7summarize recent scientific events, nor even records of everysuccessful and unsuccessful research venture. Instead, scientistswrite articles to describe their discoveries to the community in

    10a transparent manner. Within a scientific article, scientistspresent their research questions, the methods by which thequestion was approached, and the results they achieved using

    13those methods. In addition, they present their analysis of thedata and describe some of the interpretations and implicationsof their work. Because these articles report new work for the

    16first time, they are called primary literature. In contrast, articlesor news stories that review or report on scientific researchalready published elsewhere are referred to as secondary.

    19The articles in scientific journals are different from

    news articles in another way they must undergo a processcalled peer review in which other scientists (the professional22peers of the authors) evaluate the quality and merit of researchbefore recommending whether or not it should be published.

    Internet: (adapted).

    Based on the text above, judge the following items.

    1)CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____According to the text, there may be cases when scientific articles candeal with an astounding discovery.

    COMENTRIOGuys, busquem no texto discovery. ( Tcnica de scanning) O trecho diz queos artigos cientficos noso histrias sensacionais para entreter o leitor comdescobertas impressionantes... veja:Scientific articles are notsensational stories intended to entertain the readerwith an amazing discovery,...

    Amazinge astoundingesto no mesmo campo semntico =impressionante, ok?

    GABARITO: ERRADA

    2) CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____Secondary publications are not the same evaluation as that given toprimary ones.

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    EXERCCIOS COMENTADOS E DICAS

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    Profa. Vladia Mattar www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 3

    COMENTRION o ! O texto explica qual a diferena entre uma publicao primria esecundria, sem juzo de valor. De acordo com o texto, uma publicao ditaprimria porque relata um artigo (cientfico) pela primeira vez ao passo queuma publicao dita secundria quando rev ou relata uma pesquisa jpublicada. Veja:

    Because these articles report new workfor the first time, they are called

    primary literature. In contrast, articles or news stories that review orreporton scientific researchalreadypublishedelsewhere are referred toas secondary

    Vocabulrio pertinente:New work= trabalho novoReview= revisar/ criticarReport= reporter/relatarAlready= j (feito)GABARITO: ERRADA

    3)CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____Scientific articles have to be apraised by the authors equals.

    COMENTRIONessa questo o examinador queria saber do candidato o vocabulrio deappraised (= evaluate = avaliar)

    they must undergo a process in which other scientists (the professionalpeers of the authors) evaluatethe quality and merit of researchVocabulrio interessante:

    Undergo a process= passer por um processo Professional peers= pares profissionais (os equivalentes profissionais)

    GABARITO: CERTA

    4) CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____In the text, the word journals (R.2) is the same as newspapers.

    COMENTRIOCuidado com false cognates (aqueles que parecem, mas no so o que agentepensa!)Journal um tipo de newspaper; um jornal especializado. Trata-se de umapublicao especializada, cientfica e por isso no so iguais.O texto d essa dica, veja:

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    Profa. Vladia Mattar www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 4

    Scientists publish their original research in scientific journals, whichare fundamentally differentfrom news magazines

    GABARITO: ERRADA

    5) CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____The expression In addition could be correctly replaced in the text byTherefore.

    COMENTRIOSentence connectors!!!!Esto no Dicasda aula 1! In addition = ademais Therefore = por essa razo

    GABARITO: ERRADA

    6) CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____Scientific research work ought not to be summarized.

    COMENTRIODe acordo com o texto, a publicao cientfica deve ser bem detalhada,transparente, indicando inclusive as metodologias usadas... informaocompleta. Ought not to = shouldnt = no deve /pode.

    Modal verbs O u g h t t o es h o u l d . Veja questo 11 e Dicassobre ModalVerbsGABARITO: CERTA

    7)CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____ Any successful results of scientific research work are supposed to be

    known by the academic community.

    COMENTRIOO texto diz que antes de ser publicada (levada ao conhecimento dacomunidade) a pesquisa cientfica passa por uma avaliao quando, ento, sedecide se ela deve ou no ser publicada.whetheror notit should be published

    Whetheror not= se ou no ( expressa alternativas )GABARITO: ERRADA

    8) CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____According to the text, scientific breakthrough publications arecomprised usually of five items.

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    Profa. Vladia Mattar www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 5

    COMENTRIOPessoal, o que breakthrough? uma descoberta importante, geralmente cientfica.Bem, o texto enumera cincoitens de um artigo cientfico, veja:... Within a scientific article, scientists present their researchquestions, themethodsby which the question was approached, and the resultstheyachieved using those methods. In addition, they present their analysisof thedata and describe some of the interpretations and implicationsof their

    work.GABARITO: CERTA

    9)CESPE/ CNPQ/2011_____Any successful research venture is supposed to be published in scientificjournals.

    COMENTRIOO texto diz que antes de ser publicada a pesquisa deve ser avaliada e da suapublicao recomendada e no qualquer pesquisa que obtiver sucesso como

    afirma assertiva. Ateno para a n y = qualquer.Veja:evaluatethe quality and merit of research before recommending whetheror not it should be publishedGABARITO: ERRADA

    10)CESPE/ CNPQ/2011_____Several interpretations can be given to scientific works

    COMENTRIOYes!!! De acordo com o texto os cientistas ao apresentarem suas pesquisas, japresentam algumas interpretaes possveis. um dos itens da pesquisa(questo 9).Re(veja):In addition, they present their analysis of the data and describe someof theinterpretationsand implications of their workGABARITO: CERTA

    CESGRANRI O / P ETROBRAS/ 2 0 1 1

    Text 2 (extract )

    Many National Guard members are not professionally trained. They may belawyers, accountants, your next-door neighbor

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    Profa. Vladia Mattar www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 6

    11) CESGRANRIO/PETROBRAS/2011 The word may in They may belawyers, accountants, your next-door neighbor, expresses(A) ability.(B) advice.(C) certainty.(D) necessity.(E) possibility.

    COMENTRIO : M ay um Modal Verb!!! May expressa possibilidade oupermisso. Outros modais que tambm expressam possibilidade so: can,could, might. Em ingls, verbos modais so verbos que ocorrem na presenade outro verbo. No sofrem declinaes e geralmente, no so conjugados.Eles simplesmente trazem uma carga semntica para os verbos queacompanham.

    Exemplo:

    She comes here at 7pm. ( um fato!) She m a ycome here at 7pm(h uma possibilidade de esse fato ocorrer)

    Devido alta freqncia com que ocorrem na lngua, conhecer os verbosmodais torna-se imprescindvel e provavelmente por isso eles aparecem noedital. Veremos mais sobre Modal Verbs ainda nesta aula e nas prximas.Gabarito: E

    Q u a d r ix / D A TA PREV / 2 0 1 0

    Text 3

    12) Quadrix/ DATAPREV/2010

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    COMENTRIO:Atenopara o verbo infer (inferncia). Ele significa que a informao noest explicita. Precisamos enxergar alm do que est escrito.A questo traz modal verbstambm!! Vamos aos que aparecem na questo.Could: expressa possibilidade de algo acontecer, ou a possibilidade deconseguir fazer algo. A forma negativa Could not = couldnt expressa ocontrrio, impossibilidade.Would: usado para expressar hiptese.

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    Ex: it rains (chove)It could rain (poderia chover)It would rain (choveria)

    Iremos falar mais sobre modals nas prximas aulas.Vamos questo:A) ERRADO. Ele no ou no est impossibilitado de entend-la como afirma aalternativa.B) ERRADO. Call names = xingar; enjoy, like = gostarC) CORRETO. Ele faz exatamente o contrrio do que ela pediu, ento inferimos

    que ele no quer o que ela ofereceu (a kiss)D) ERRADO. A referncia Jimmys line.E) ERRADO. A informao falsa.GABARITO: C

    FGV / Se n a d o / 2 0 0 8 / A n a l i s t a L e g i s l a t i v o P r o c e ss o Le g i s t i v o

    Text 4Read text 4 and answer questions 13 to 17

    Judicial reasoningJudicial reasoning refers both to the process of thought by which a judgereaches a conclusion as to the appropriate result in a case, and to the writtenexplanation of that process in a published judgment. The latter is the principalmechanism of judicial accountability: an explanation of the reasons for decisionis owed not only to the unsuccessful litigant, but to everyone with an interestin the judicial process, including other institutions of government andultimately the public. No other public decision makers are under such a heavyobligation to explain the reasons for their decisions. Yet the specialized natureof legal discourse means that the function of public justification is oftenimperfectly realised: the explanations are designed to be understood primarilyby other judges and by the legal profession in general.

    While the published reasons for decision lend themselves to objectiveanalysis, the underlying processes of thought involved in exploring andresolving a legal problem are so complex and variable that neither judges norwriters on jurisprudence have been able to reduce them to an adequateexplanatory or prescriptive model. Ideally, the written reasons for judgmentnot only provide an accurate mirror of the underlying reasoning process, butmay actually help to shape it: the task of reducing ones thinking to writing isitself an aid to thinking, and sometimes a decisive aid.(http://www.win-more-cases.com/judicial-reasoning.htm)

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    Profa. Vladia Mattar www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 9

    13) FGV/ Senado /2008 According to the text, the processes of judicialreasoning cannot be(A) systematized.(B) contested.(C) annotated.(D) realized.(E) advocated.

    COMENTRIO:

    Essa questo de pura interpretao! Isso significa que devemos ler todo otexto e deixar as estratgias de leitura rpida de lado. Ateno para cannotdocaput da questo: Modal verb!O trecho abaixo traz a resposta para a questo. Ateno s palavras emdestaque.the underlying p r o c e s s e s of thought involved in exploring and resolving alegal problem are so c o m p l e x and v a r i a b l e that n e i t h e r judges n o rwriterson jurisprudence h a v e b e e n a b l e t o r e d u c e t h e m to an adequateexplanatory or prescriptive m o d e l

    Vamos entende?!: o trecho diz que esse processo to complexo e varivelque nemjuzes, nemescritores conseguiramformular um modelo adequado.

    (A) systematized= sistematizado(B) contested= contestado(C) annotated= anotado(D) realized= realizado(E) advocated= defendidoGABARITO:A

    14) FGV/ Senado /2008 In relation to judicial reasoning processes, thewritten version may in fact(A) simplify them.(B) reverse them.(C) retard them.(D) reflect them.(E) hinder them.

    COMENTRIO:O M a ya de novo guys!! J sabemos que ele expressa possibilidade!!O trecho abaixo traz a resposta. Note os termos destacados:I d e a l l y , the w r i t t en r e a s on s for judgment not only provide a n a c c u r a t em i r r o r of the underlying reasoning process, but m a y a c t u a l l y h e l p to shapeit

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    Ateno para a c t u a l l y um false cognate e no significa atualmente.A c t u a l l y ( no texto ) = realmenteA n a cc u r a t e m i r r o r = um espelho preciso

    Vocabulrio da questo:simplify = simplificarreverse = reverterretard = atrasarreflect = refletir

    hinder=dificultarGABARITO:D

    15) FGV/ Senado /2008 The verb in reaches a conclusion can be replacedby:(A) jumps to.(B) abides by.(C) arrives at.(D) hands down.

    (E) dallies with.COMENTRIO:Questo de vocabulrio ento no precisamos reler o texto! O examinadorquer saber se o candidato sabe o significado de r e a c h e s do verbo reachquesignifica alcanar. Be careful...Pode parecer a Letra A, mas ela tem umaconotao negativa.Vamos ao vocab da questo!!

    jumps to= chega a (uma concluso) precipitadamenteabides by= obedece aarrives at= chega ahands down= encaminha paradallies with= dally with= brinca/flerta comGABARITO:C

    16) FGV/ Senado /2008 In as to the appropriate result appropriate means(A) astounding.(B) casual.(C) riotous.(D) bewildering.

    (E) suitable.

    COMENTRIO:

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    Questo de vocabulrio, de novo, ento no precisamos reler o texto! Oexaminador quer saber se o candidato sabe o significado do verbo s u i t a b l e = a p p r o p r i a t e que significa apropriado, correto.

    (A) astounding=espantoso(B) casual=casual(C) riotous= turbulento,desordenado(D) bewildering= desconcertante(E) suitable= adequado, apropriado

    GABARITO: E

    17) FGV/ Senado /2008 The underlined word in The latter is the principalmechanism(line 3) refers to(A) conclusion.(B) explanation.(C) process.(D) result.(E) judgment.

    COMENTRIOPrimeiramente precisamos entender o que f o r m e r el a t t e r . Formerretoma aprimeira coisa ou pessoa mencionada no texto e lattera segunda, ok?!Quando uma questo traz r e f e r s t o no caput, o candidato deve voltar ao textopara buscar a referncia questionada. Ento precisamos reler o trechoimediatamente antes da frase da questo para descobrir o quelatterretoma :

    Judicial reasoning refers b o t h to the process of thought by which a judgereaches a conclusion as to the appropriate result in a case, and to the writtene x p l a n a t i o n of that process in a published judgment.

    Otrecho sublinhado o quelatter retoma eexplanation o ncleo.

    GABARITO:B

    18) FGV/ Senado /2008 When the text states that the published reasonsfor decisionlend themselves to objective analysis (first line 2ndparagraph)this meansthey(A) allow it.(B) elude it.

    (C) carry it out.(D) exhibit it.(E) defy it.

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    COMENTRIO:Pessoal, vocabulario. Lendthemselvesaqui significa se prestam, permitemVamos s assertivas:A) allow it = permitir; contribuir (esta a nossa!!)B) elude it = evitar; escaparC) carry it out = carregar; conduzir; suportarD) exhibit it =exibirE) defy it = resistir; provocar

    GABARITO:A

    Read text 5 and answer questions.

    TEXT 5

    How does a lawyer snatch defeat from the jaws of victory?The answer may surprise some lawyers, according to research companyResearch One.

    In 7 years of providing specialist legal research, writing, and analysis servicesto lawyers worldwide, multi-award winning research company Research Onehas compiled the best information there is on why some lawyers loseunlosable cases, cases where everything points to a good outcome law,history, policy, and basic fairness yet the court still decides the other way.CEO, Troy Simpson, says the commonest mistake lawyers make is to raiseevery argument imaginable. The fear of losing a case compels lawyers to raiseevery argument conceivable. It may seem counter-intuitive, and mightcontradict what youre taught in law school, but raising a mishmash of legaltheories in fact creates an even bigger risk for a lawyer. Unless you find thereal point of the case and toss out the arguments that have no legs, then yourisk diverting the courts attention and you dilute the strength of your realargument, Simpson says. Forgetting to look outside your area of expertise isalso high on the list of ways to lose the unlosable case. No lawyer can masterevery area of law, so lawyers compartmentalize the law and focus on 1 or 2areas of expertise. But the law cant be so neatly contained, which means youmay miss a winning argument if its outside your experience, SimpsonsaysSeveral deeper problems affect lawyers success rates, according to ResearchOne. The first problem is lawyers shortage of time: You may have no time tothink through your argument properly, but deadlines push you on. So you

    paper over the gaps in logic and end-up presenting nonsense. Second, toomany lawyers work in noisy and busy environments, poorly suited to the workof lawyers: Its hard to think in the hustle and bustle of big cities. The work of

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    a good thinker is quiet and unhurried. The third problem is a lack ofobjectivity: When youre anxious for a particular result, you may sometimesnot look as objectively at a legal problem or legal argument as you should,Simpson says.To confront these and other problems, lawyers around the common law worldare finding their way to a new resource that aims to reduce the risk of makingpotentially costly and embarrassing mistakes. The resource is Win More Cases:The Lawyers Toolkit, a groundbreaking 200-page step-by-step guide onsolving legal problems persuasively in writing.(http://www.research- one.com.au/Portals/0/PressRelease_HardCopy_7.pdf)

    19) FGV/Senado/2008 The research company mentioned says that threemain problems affect lawyers success, one of which is(A) lofty offices.(B) unfit conditions.(C) unlucky circumstances.(D) unsafe surroundings.(E) embarrassing spots.

    COMENTRIOGuys, vocabulrio foi a pedida desta questo. Vamos ao texto buscar quais ostrs problemas mencionados que afetam o desempenho de um advogado:

    The first problem is lawyers shortage of time:...O primeiro problema a falta de tempo...

    Second, too many lawyers work in noisy and busy environments, poorlysuited to the work of lawyers:...Segundo, muitos advogados trabalham em ambientes barulhentos emovimentados, pouco adequados ao trabalhonde um advogado...

    The third problem is a lack of objectivity:..o terceiro problema falta de objetividade....As opes:A)Lofty offices = escritrios altosB)Unfit conditions = condies no adequadas ( esta!!!)C)Unlucky circumstances = circunstancias desafortunadasD)Unsafe surroundings = redondezas perigosasE)Embarassing sppots = Locais constrangedores

    GABARITO: B

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    20) FGV/Senado/2008 In yet the court still decide the other way yet canbe replaced by(A) moreover.(B) hitherto.(C) until.(D) however.(E) henceforth.

    COMENTRIO

    Pessoal, sentence connectors Alta possibilidade de vocs encontrarem umaquesto deste tipo na prova.

    Yet,no texto, expressa contrast. Poderia ser substitudo, por exemplo, porhowever. O significado mas, contudo, entretanto, pormetc.

    Veja um outro exemplo para fixar:

    He has over a million Reais in his bank account. Ye t he still gets up at sixevery morning to go to work.

    [Ele tem mais de um milho de reais no banco. Entretanto ainda se levanta sseis da manh para ir trabalhar]GABARITO: D

    21) FGV/Senado/2008 When the text informs that the court may decidethe other way , this means the decision may be

    (A) fair.(B) favorable.(C) unchanged.(D) unexpected.(E) unbiased.

    COMENTRIOVocabulary. A expresso the other wayno texto significa de outra forma,ou de outra maneira. Nas opes no temos a traduo exata da expresso,mas cabe uma interpretao, uma aproximao. Veja:

    a)Fair = justa

    b)Favorable = favorvelc) Unchanged = que no mudou/modificou

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    d)Unexpected = inesperada ()e)Unbiased = imparcial

    GABARITO: D

    Parte 2 QUESTES INDITAS

    Text 5Laws & Acts in the U.S

    When a bill is passed in identical form by both the Senate and the House, it issent to the president for his signature. If the president signs the bill, itbecomes a law. Laws are also known as Acts of Congress. Statute is anotherword that is used interchangeably with law.

    When the president signs a law, the law receives a number in the order inwhich it is signed. A citation to a public law looks like this: P.L.107-101, where

    107" indicates this law was passed during the 107th Congress, and 101 is thenumerical designation it received. A private law is designated similarly, butuses the term private law instead of public law.

    Public and private laws are printed as slip lawswhich are single sheets orpamphlets containing the text of the law. At the end of each session ofCongress, slip laws are compiled into a single volume called U.S. Statutes atLarge. Most laws are eventually incorporated into the U.S. Code.

    Based on the text above, judge the following items.

    22) Vladia /Indita/2012______ private laws are designated same way aspublic laws.

    COMENTRIOEssa questo para testar seu vocab!! Veja o trecho:

    A private law is designated s im i la r l y , b u t uses the term private law i n s t e a do fpublic law.

    similarly( similarmente ) same as ( igual a )

    instead of = ao invs de

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    GABARITO: ERRADA

    23) Vladia /Indita/2012______slip laws are individual pieces of paper orleaflets with the text of a law.

    COMENTRIO

    Guys para responder essa questo precisamos saber que which retoma slip

    laws. Feito isso vamos ao vocab! Veja o trecho.Public and private laws are printed as slip lawswhich are s in g l e s h e e t s orp a m p h l e t s containing the text of the law.

    single sheets= folha de papel individualPamphlets= leaflets= pamfletosGABARITO: CERTA

    24) Vladia /Indita/2012 The sentence this law was passed during the107thCongress means that

    (A) This law passed the 107th congress(B) The 107th congress passed(C) The 107th congress passed this law(D) There were laws during the 107thCongress(E) This law passed away.

    COMENTRIOGuysquesto sobre passive voice. Como seria a frase da questo na voz ativa?Veja Dicaspara uma explicao detalhada sobrepassive voice!!

    GABARITO: C

    Text 6

    TheFederal Senate of Brazil

    The Federal Senate of Brazil (Portuguese: Senado Federal do Brasil) is theupper house of the National Congress of Brazil. Created by the firstConstitution of the Brazilian Empire in 1824, it was inspired by the United

    Kingdom's House of Lords, but with the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 itbecame closer to the United States Senate.

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    Currently, the Senate comprises 81 seats. Three Senators from each of the 26states and three Senators from the Federal District are elected on a majoritybasis to serve eight-year terms. Elections are staggered so that two-thirds ofthe upper house is up for election at one time and the remaining one-third fouryears later.

    25) Vladia /Indita/2012 The pronoun it in it was inspired by the United

    Kingdom's House of Lords refers to:(A) The Federal Senate of Brazil(B) The Constitution(C) The National Congress of Brazil(D) The Brazilian Empire in 1824(E) The United Kingdom's House of Lords

    COMENTRIO I t um pronome usado para substituir um animal ou coisa, ou ainda iniciarfrases impessoais, pois em ingls no h orao sem sujeito. Na nossaquestoi tretoma The Federal Senate of Brazil.A frase est na voz passiva!it was inspired by the United Kingdom's House of Lords= Foi inspirado naCmara dos Lordes do Reino Unido.

    GABARITO: A

    PARTE 3 TEORIA E DICAS

    Modal Verbs

    Os verbos modais possuem caractersticas prprias:

    1. so auxiliares, por isso no precisam de outros auxiliares;2. so seguidos de verbos em sua forma bsica: GO, HAVE, FINISH,3. No mudam na terceira pessoa do singular no presente. Logo, eles nunca

    recebem s, es ou ies.

    So verbos modais: c a n (pode, consegue), c o u l d (poderia, conseguia), m a y(pode, poderia), m i g h t (pode, poderia), s h o u l d (deveria), m u s t (deve),o u g h t t o (precisa) e u s e d t o (costumava).

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    Ca n: pode ser usado para expressar permisso, habilidade epossibilidade.

    - Can I drink water? (Posso beber gua?) - permission

    - I can speak English.(Eu posso falar ingls). Ability

    - You can buy a computer on the internet - possibility

    Cou l d : empregado para expressar habilidade do passado, permisso,

    possibilidade/alternativa, solicitao.- I c o u l d ride a bike when I was 6 years old, and now I cant anymore.(Eupodia/conseguia andar de bicicleta quando tinha 6 anos de idade, e agora noconsigo mais). Past abillity

    - Could you bring me a sandwich and a coke, please?(Voc poderia me trazerum sanduche e uma coca, por favor?). request

    M a y: possibilidade no presente ou no futuro,permisso.

    - It may rain tomorrow. (Pode chover amanh). possibility- May I go to the bathroom?(Eu poderia ir ao banheiro?). permission

    M i g h t : usado para expressar possibilidades o passado ou no presente.

    - She was not at home. She might have gone to the party. (Ela no estava emcasa. Ela pode ter ido festa). Past possibility

    - He might have lunch with us today. (Ele talvez almoar conosco hoje).Present possibility

    S h o u l d usado para expressar um conselho/ sugesto/expectativa.

    - You look sick! you should go to the doctor. (Voc parece doente. Voc deveria irao mdico). Advice.

    - He called from the parking lot, so he should arrive at any minute now.(Ele ligoudo estacionamento, ento eledeve chegar a qualquer momento).Expectation.

    O u g h t t o e x p r e s s a r e c om e n d ao (m a i s f o r t e d o q u e s h o u l d )

    - You o u g h t to quit smoking. (Voc deveria parar de fumar). Strong advice

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    Mu s t : usado para expressar obrigao.

    - You m u s t go to school. (Voc deve ir escola). Ob l i g a t i o n - She muststudy more. (Ela deve estudar mais). o b l i g a t i o n

    Mu s t n t = must not : expressa proibio

    - You mustnt drink and drive.( proibido beber e dirigir). Prohibition

    U s e d t o : expressa um hbito do passado.

    - I used to watch cartoons when I was a child. (Eu costumava assistir desenhosquando era criana). Past habit

    Pa s s i v e v o i c e Vo z P a s s i v a

    Ocorre quando o objeto de uma orao passa a ser sujeito de uma orao.

    Para passar uma orao para a voz passiva, coloca-se o verbo to be nomesmo tempo verbal do verbo principal da orao. O verbo principal necessariamente passado para o particpio.

    Ento fica assim:

    Orao principal / active voice:

    Brazil grows coffee. ( grows= present tense of grow= cultivar).

    Passive voice:

    Coffee is grown in Brazil.(is= present tense of to be ).

    Verbo t o b e conjugado:

    Simple Present

    Simple Past

    Future

    Present Continuous

    Past Continuous

    Conditional

    am / is / are (not)

    was / were (not)

    will be

    is / are being

    was / were being

    would / may be

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    Present Perfect

    Past Perfect

    has / have been

    had been

    Vocabulary Builder

    Leia o texto e treine o vocabulrio

    Laws & Acts

    When a bill is passed in identical form by both the Senate and the House, it is sent to thepresident for his signature. If the president signs the bill, it becomes a law. Laws are alsoknown asActs of Congress. Statute is another word that is used interchangeably with law.

    When the president signs a law, the law receives a number in the order in which it issigned. A citation to a public law looks like this: P.L.107-101, where 107" indicates thislaw was passed during the 107th Congress, and 101 is the numerical designation itreceived. A private law is designated similarly, but uses the term private law instead ofpublic law.

    Public and private laws are printed as slip lawswhich are single sheets or pamphletscontaining the text of the law. At the end of each session of Congress, slip laws are

    compiled into a single volume called U.S. Statutes at Large. Most laws areeventually incorporated into the U.S. Code. (www.wikipedia.com)

    Bill president signature

    becomes a law Acts of the Congress

    LAWS

    And

    ACTS

    Statue public law

    Citation law was passed

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    Text of the law

    Session of the Congress

    Laws and Acts = Leis e atos Bill = projeto de lei (o nosso PL) President = presidente Signature = assinatura Becomes a Law = torna-se uma lei Acts of the Congress = Atos do Congresso Statue = estatuto Public law = lei pblica Citation = citao Law was passed = a lei foi aprovada Text of the Law = texto da lei Session of the Congress = sesso do Congresso

    T h a t s a l l Fo l k s ! !! ! f o r n o w . ..

    SEE YOU SOON ! !

    V la d i a M a t t a r H u d s o n

    PARTE 4 LISTA DE QUESTES E GABRITO SECO

    CESP E/ CNPQ / 2 0 1 1 / COMUN I CA O SOCI A L

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    Text 1Scientists publish their original research in scientific journals, whichare fundamentally different from news magazines.The articles in scientific journals are not written by

    4journalists they are written by scientists. Scientific articlesare not sensational stories intended to entertain the reader withan amazing discovery, nor are they news stories intended to

    7summarize recent scientific events, nor even records of everysuccessful and unsuccessful research venture. Instead, scientists

    write articles to describe their discoveries to the community in10a transparent manner. Within a scientific article, scientistspresent their research questions, the methods by which thequestion was approached, and the results they achieved using

    13those methods. In addition, they present their analysis of thedata and describe some of the interpretations and implicationsof their work. Because these articles report new work for the

    16first time, they are called primary literature. In contrast, articlesor news stories that review or report on scientific researchalready published elsewhere are referred to as secondary.

    19The articles in scientific journals are different fromnews articles in another way they must undergo a processcalled peer review in which other scientists (the professional

    22peers of the authors) evaluate the quality and merit of researchbefore recommending whether or not it should be published.

    Internet: (adapted).

    Based on the text above, judge the following items.

    1)CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____According to the text, there may be cases when scientific articles candeal with an astounding discovery.

    2) CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____Secondary publications are not the same evaluation as that given toprimary ones.

    3)CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____Scientific articles have to be apraised by the authors equals.4) CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____In the text, the word journals (R.2) is the same as newspapers.

    5) CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____The expression In addition could be correctly replaced in the text byTherefore.

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    6) CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____Scientific research work ought not to be summarized.

    7)CESPE/ CNPQ/2011____ Any successful results of scientific research work are supposed to beknown by the academic community.

    8) CESPE/ CNPQ/2011

    ____According to the text, scientific breakthrough publications arecomprised usually of five items.

    9)CESPE/ CNPQ/2011_____Any successful research venture is supposed to be published in scientificjournals.

    10)CESPE/ CNPQ/2011_____Several interpretations can be given to scientific works

    11)CESGRANRIO/PETROBRAS/2011Many National Guard members are not professionally trained. They may be

    lawyers, accountants, your next-door neighbor

    The word may in They may be lawyers, accountants, your next-doorneighbor, expresses(A) ability.(B) advice.(C) certainty.(D) necessity.(E) possibility.

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    12)Quadrix/DATAPREV/2010

    Text 4

    Read text 4 and answer questions 13 to 17

    Judicial reasoning

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    Judicial reasoning refers both to the process of thought by which a judgereaches a conclusion as to the appropriate result in a case, and to the writtenexplanation of that process in a published judgment. The latter is the principalmechanism of judicial accountability: an explanation of the reasons for decisionis owed not only to the unsuccessful litigant, but to everyone with an interestin the judicial process, including other institutions of government andultimately the public. No other public decision makers are under such a heavyobligation to explain the reasons for their decisions. Yet the specialized natureof legal discourse means that the function of public justification is often

    imperfectly realised: the explanations are designed to be understood primarilyby other judges and by the legal profession in general.

    While the published reasons for decision lend themselves to objectiveanalysis, the underlying processes of thought involved in exploring andresolving a legal problem are so complex and variable that neither judges norwriters on jurisprudence have been able to reduce them to an adequateexplanatory or prescriptive model. Ideally, the written reasons for judgmentnot only provide an accurate mirror of the underlying reasoning process, butmay actually help to shape it: the task of reducing ones thinking to writing is

    itself an aid to thinking, and sometimes a decisive aid.(http://www.win-more-cases.com/judicial-reasoning.htm)

    13)FGV/Senado/2008According to the text, the processes of judicialreasoningcannot be(A) systematized.(B) contested.(C) annotated.

    (D) realized.(E) advocated.

    14) FGV/Senado/2008 In relation to judicial reasoning processes, thewritten versionmay in fact(A) simplify them.(B) reverse them.(C) retard them.(D) reflect them.

    (E) hinder them.

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    15) FGV/Senado/2008 The verb in reaches a conclusion (line 2) can bereplaced by:(A) jumps to.(B) abides by.(C) arrives at.(D) hands down.(E) dallies with.

    16) FGV/Senado/2008 In as to the appropriate result (lines 2-3)

    appropriate means(A) astounding.(B) casual.(C) riotous.(D) bewildering.(E) suitable.

    17) FGV/Senado/2008 The underlined word in The latter is the principalmechanism(line 4) refers to

    (A) conclusion.(B) explanation.(C) process.(D) result.(E) judgment.

    18) FGV/Senado/2008 When the text states that the published reasons fordecision lend themselves to objective analysis (lines 15-16) this meansthey(A) allow it.(B) elude it.(C) carry it out.(D) exhibit it.(E) defy it.

    Read text 5 and answer questions.

    TEXT 5

    How does a lawyer snatch defeat from the jaws of victory?

    The answer may surprise some lawyers, according to research companyResearch One.

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    In 7 years of providing specialist legal research, writing, and analysis servicesto lawyers worldwide, multi-award winning research company Research Onehas compiled the best information there is on why some lawyers loseunlosable cases, cases where everything points to a good outcome law,history, policy, and basic fairness yet the court still decides the other way.CEO, Troy Simpson, says the commonest mistake lawyers make is to raiseevery argument imaginable. The fear of losing a case compels lawyers to raiseevery argument conceivable. It may seem counter-intuitive, and mightcontradict what youre taught in law school, but raising a mishmash of legal

    theories in fact creates an even bigger risk for a lawyer. Unless you find thereal point of the case and toss out the arguments that have no legs, then yourisk diverting the courts attention and you dilute the strength of your realargument, Simpson says. Forgetting to look outside your area of expertise isalso high on the list of ways to lose the unlosable case. No lawyer can masterevery area of law, so lawyers compartmentalize the law and focus on 1 or 2areas of expertise. But the law cant be so neatly contained, which means youmay miss a winning argument if its outside your experience, SimpsonsaysSeveral deeper problems affect lawyers success rates, according to Research

    One. The first problem is lawyers shortage of time: You may have no time tothink through your argument properly, but deadlines push you on. So youpaper over the gaps in logic and end-up presenting nonsense. Second, toomany lawyers work in noisy and busy environments, poorly suited to the workof lawyers: Its hard to think in the hustle and bustle of big cities. The work ofa good thinker is quiet and unhurried. The third problem is a lack ofobjectivity: When youre anxious for a particular result, you may sometimesnot look as objectively at a legal problem or legal argument as you should,Simpson says.To confront these and other problems, lawyers around the common law worldare finding their way to a new resource that aims to reduce the risk of makingpotentially costly and embarrassing mistakes. The resource is Win More Cases:The Lawyers Toolkit, a groundbreaking 200-page step-by-step guide onsolving legal problems persuasively in writing.(http://www.research- one.com.au/Portals/0/PressRelease_HardCopy_7.pdf)

    19) FGV/Senado/2008 The research company mentioned says that threemain problems affect lawyers success, one of which is(A) lofty offices.(B) unfit conditions.(C) unlucky circumstances.

    (D) unsafe surroundings.(E) embarrassing spots.

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    20) FGV/Senado/2008 In yet the court still decide the other way yet canbe replaced by(A) moreover.(B) hitherto.(C) until.(D) however.(E) henceforth.

    21) FGV/Senado/2008 When the text informs that the court may decide

    the other way , this means the decision may be(A) fair.(B) favorable.(C) unchanged.(D) unexpected.(E) unbiased.

    Text 6

    Laws & Acts in the U.S

    When a bill is passed in identical form by both the Senate and the House, it issent to the president for his signature. If the president signs the bill, itbecomes a law. Laws are also known as Acts of Congress. Statute is anotherword that is used interchangeably with law.

    When the president signs a law, the law receives a number in the order inwhich it is signed. A citation to a public law looks like this: P.L.107-101, where107" indicates this law was passed during the 107th Congress, and 101 is thenumerical designation it received. A private law is designated similarly, but

    uses the term private law instead of public law.Public and private laws are printed as slip lawswhich are single sheets orpamphlets containing the text of the law. At the end of each session ofCongress, slip laws are compiled into a single volume called U.S. Statutes atLarge. Most laws are eventually incorporated into the U.S. Code.

    Based on the text above, judge the following items.

    22) Vladia /Indita/2012______ private laws are designated same wayas public laws.

    23) Vladia /Indita/2012______slip laws are individual leaflets or paperwith the text of a law.

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    24) Vladia /Indita/2012 The sentence this law was passed during the107thCongress means that

    (A) This law passed the 107th congress(B) The 107th congress passed(C) The 107th congress passed this law(D) There were laws during the 107thCongress(E) This law passed away.

    Text 6TheFederal Senate of Brazil

    The Federal Senate of Brazil (Portuguese: Senado Federal do Brasil) is theupper house of the National Congress of Brazil. Created by the firstConstitution of the Brazilian Empire in 1824, it was inspired by the UnitedKingdom's House of Lords, but with the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 itbecame closer to the United States Senate.

    Currently, the Senate comprises 81 seats. Three Senators from each of the 26states and three Senators from the Federal District are elected on a majoritybasis to serve eight-year terms. Elections are staggered so that two-thirds ofthe upper house is up for election at one time and the remaining one-third fouryears later.

    25) Vladia /Indita/2012 The pronoun it in it was inspired by the UnitedKingdom's House of Lords refers to:

    (A) The Federal Senate of Brazil(B) The Constitution

    (C) The National Congress of Brazil(D) The Brazilian Empire in 1824(E) The United Kingdom's House of Lords

    GABARITO SECO

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    CESPE/CNPQ/2011

    CESGRANRIO/Petrobrs /2011

    Quadrix/Dataprev/2010

    FGV/SEnado/2008

    VLADIA/Inditas2011

    1) ERRADA 11) E 12) C 13) A 22)ERRADA2) ERRADA 14) D 23)CERTA3) CERTA 15) C 24)C4) ERRADA 16) E 25)A5) ERRADA 17) B6) CERTA 18) A7) ERRADA 19) B8) CERTA 20) D9) ERRADA 21) D10) CERTA

    THE END.

    T h a t s a l l Fo l k s ! !! ! f o r n o w . ..

    SEE YOU SOON ! !