attracting more tourists by taking account of their cultural background

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Attracting more tourists by taking account of their cultural background. Marinel Gerritsen Professor of Intercultural Business Communication Department of Business Communication Studies Radboud University Nijmegen The Netherlands M.Gerritsen@let.ru.nl. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Attracting more tourists by taking account of their cultural backgroundMarinel Gerritsen

    Professor of Intercultural Business Communication Department of Business Communication StudiesRadboud University NijmegenThe NetherlandsM.Gerritsen@let.ru.nl

  • Three aspects of marketing communication of a tourist area that will be dealt witha) Content of the information about the area (text and pictures)

    b) Communication media used to convey information about the tourist area

    c) Form of the communication

  • Outline of the paper

    A model and a hypothesis that indicate that responding to the communicative conventions of the culture of a target group might be an important device in attracting touristsA communication modelThe similarity attraction hypothesis

    Which elements of culture: visible and/or invisible elements?

    Applying knowledge of the values of the target group in the marketing communication of a tourist area

    Adapting to the communication style of the target group

    Implications for tourist marketers

  • In communication at least two persons are involved

    Sender A person who sends a message in the form of symbols for example words, pictures ReceiverA person who interpretes these symbols and deduces a message from these symbols

  • Effective communication

    Communication between sender and receiver is most effective if the interpretation of the message by the receiver is similar to what the sender intended to communicate with the message

  • Targowski/Bowman Layer-based pragmatic communication model

  • Twitter in Europe, the more colour the more twitter is used

  • Targowski/Bowman Layer-based pragmatic communication model

  • *The marketer of the tourist area has to adapt to the communicative conventions of the target group and has to realize

    In intercultural marketing communication, what matters is not what you show, but how it is seen, and not what you say but how you are heard

  • Similarity attraction hypothesisThe more similar two individuals are, the higher the attraction between them

    and that is precisely what a tourist area wants: attract tourists.

    Ng et al (2007): Tourist marketers should taken into account cultural similarities between their tourist area and the target group in their image building of a tourist area.

  • Similarity between which elements of a culture play the major role in attracting tourist?

  • *Model of culture: Hofstede's onion-diagram

  • Symbols

  • * Tea rituals in Japan

  • *Model of culture: Hofstede's onion-diagram

  • *Model of culture: The floating ice berg of Edward T. HallBehavior, customs, language , history1/9 visible elementsValues, perception of the world, way of thinking ,presuppositions

    8/9 invisible elements

  • Similarity between which elements of the models of culture should be taken account by tourist marketers: the visible or invisible elements?

    Invisible elements, values

  • Why taking account of the invisible elements?-1

    Because tourists travel to see and experience new things, and they can especially observe the visible elements of a culture

    Two questions that call for further research:

    1. Do touristst from high uncertainty avoidance cultures (what is different is dangerous) and tourists from low uncertainty avoidance cultures (what is different is interesting) differ in the extent to which visible elements of a culture attract them?

    2. Do difference between tourist area and target group in all visible aspects of a culture play the same role in attraction?

  • Why taking account of the invisible elements? -2Values are learned at ones mother knee

    By the age of twelve a child has acquired values and because this learning process has taken place so early and unconsciouslousy, a person believes that persons all over the world have the same values

  • *Six basic values (Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck 1961)1. Human nature

    2. Underlying motives for acting

    3. Human Relations

    4. Time

    5. Space

    6. Person-Nature

  • *16 values anno 2012 and the six basic values of (Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck 1961)1. Human nature

    2. Underlying motives for actingIndulgence-Restraint (Hofstede)Uncertainty Avoidance (Hofstede)Masculinity-Feminity (Hofstede)

    3. Human RelationsCollectivism-Individualism (Hofstede)Power distance (Hofstede)Particularism-Universalism (Trompenaars)Achieved-scribed status (Trompenaars)Neutral-Affective (Trompenaars)

    4. TimePast, present, future (Trompenaars)Polychrony-monochrony (Hall)Confucian Dynamism (Hofstede)

    5. SpacePersonal space (Hall)Private-Public (Hall)Specific-Diffuse (Trompenaars

    6. Person-Nature

  • *16 values anno 2012 and the six basic values of (Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck 1961)1. Human nature

    2. Underlying motives for actingIndulgence-Restraint (Hofstede)Uncertainty Avoidance (Hofstede)Masculinity-Feminity (Hofstede)

    3. Human RelationsCollectivism-Individualism (Hofstede)Power distance (Hofstede)Particularism-Universalism (Trompenaars)Achieved-scribed status (Trompenaars)Neutral-Affective (Trompenaars)

    4. TimePast, present, future (Trompenaars)Polychrony-monochrony (Hall)Confucian Dynamism (Hofstede)

    5. SpacePersonal space (Hall)Private-Public (Hall)Specific-Diffuse (Trompenaars

    6. Person-Nature

  • Indulgence versus restraint ( the 6th value of Hofstede (Hofstede, Hofstede, Minkov 2010, p. 281))IndulgenceA tendency to allow relatively free gratification of basic and natural human desires related to enjoying life and having fun

    RestraintA conviction that such gratification needs to be curbed and regulated by strict social norms

  • Indulgence versus restraint and attracting touristsContentIndulgence: aspects of a tourist area that show that one can have fun, enjoy life and pamper oneselfRestraint: aspects of a tourist area that are related to learn something (history, geography, art)

    Communication mediaIndulgence: glossy, glamorousRestraint: serious books, flyers

  • Uncertainty avoidance

    The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations

    High uncertainty avoidance : What is different is dangerous

    Low uncertainty avoidance: What is different is interesting

  • Uncertainty avoidance and attracting touristsContentHigh uncertainty avoidance: package tours, all inclusive, travelling in groups, well known hotel chains, well known destinations, booking long before the journey, risk free activities, transparency of information (facts and figures), strengthen de confidence of travelers by assuring stability, free insurance, guarantee of personal safety and security Low uncertainty avoidance: new things, adventures, last minutes, bed and breakfast

    Communication mediaHigh uncertainty avoidance: travel agencyLow uncertainty avoidance: internet, word of mouth

    Form of the communicationHigh uncertainty avoidance: precise, facts and figures, information long before the journey will take place Low uncertainty avoidance: last minute information

  • Masculinity versus FemininityMasculine Emotional gender roles are clearly distinct: men are supposed to be assertive, tough and focussed on material success, whereas women are supposed to be more modest, tender and concerned with the quality of lifeFeminineEmotional gender roles overlap: both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life

  • Masculinity versus femininity and attracting touristsContentMasculine: division of gender roles, one can show achievement in personal life and in for example sport and financial soundness during the holidayFeminine: no division of gender roles, environment friendly, sustainability, one helps the population by visiting the area as a tourist , social responsibility, development assistance

    Communication mediaMasculine: media that show achievement (glossy magazines)Feminine: simple environment friendly media

  • Collectivism versus Individualism

    Individualism Ties between individuals are loose: everyone is expected to look after him- or herself and his or her immediate family

    Collectivism People are from birth onward integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout peoples lifetime, continue to protect then in exchange for unquestioning loyalty

  • Collectivism versus individualism and attracting touristsContentCollectivistic: to have a holiday with the whole (extended) family and the possibility to travel in groups Individualistic: individual activities that are tailor made to the individual desires

    Communication mediaCollectivistic: more reliance on family/ friends or company colleagues for travel information Individualistic: more reliance on the internet

    Form of the communicationCollectivistic: high context, indirect, flowery style, metaphors, narrativesIndividualistic: low context, direct, facts and figures

  • Power distance

    The extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally

  • Power distance and attracting touristsContentHigh power distance: highest quality and service, you will be treated as a queen, well known destinations (Montreux!), the most important, powerful and famous people of the world were here too. Low power distance: population of the area is easily approachable

    Communication mediaHigh power distance: glossy, luxurious brochuresLow power distance: internet

    Form of the communicationHigh power dista