attack monitoring using elasticsearch logstash and kibana

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Attack Monitoring Using ELK@Nullcon Goa 2015

@prajalkulkarni @mehimansu

prajal kulkarni () - Need the appropriate confAbout Us@prajalkulkarni-Security Analyst @flipkart.com-Interested in webapps, mobile, loves scripting in python-Fan of cricket! and a wannabe guitarist!

@mehimansu-Security Analyst @flipkart.com-CTF Player - Team SegFault-Interested in binaries, fuzzing

Todays workshop agendaOverview & Architecture of ELK

Setting up & configuring ELK

Logstash forwarder

Alerting And Attack monitoring

What does the vm contains?

Extracted ELK Tar files in /opt/

java version "1.7.0_76"

Apache installed

Logstash-forwarder package

java -versionapache2 -version

Why ELK?

Why ELK?Old Schoolgrep/sed/awk/cut/sort

manually analyze the output

ELKdefine endpoints(input/output)

correlate patterns

store data(search and visualize)

Other SIEM Market Solutions!Symantec Security Information ManagerSplunkHP/ArcsightTripwireNetIQQuest SoftwareIBM/Q1 LabsNovellEnterprise Security Manager

Overview of ElasticsearchOpen source search server written in Java

Used to index any kind of heterogeneous data

Enables real-time ability to search through index

Has REST API web-interface with JSON output

Overview of LogstashFramework for managing logsFounded by Jordan SisselMainly consists of 3 components:input : passing logs to process them into machine understandable format(file,lumberjack).

filters: set of conditionals to perform specific action on a event(grok,geoip).

output: decision maker for processed event/log(elasticsearch,file)

Powerful front-end dashboard for visualizing indexed information from elastic cluster.

Capable to providing historical data in form of graphs,charts,etc.

Enables real-time search of indexed information.

Overview of Kibana

Basic ELK Setup

Lets Setup ELKMake sure about the update/dependencies!

$sudo apt-get update$sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:webupd8team/java$sudo apt-get update$sudo apt-get -y install oracle-java7-installer$sudo apt-get install apache2

Installing Elasticsearch$cd /opt

$curl O https://download.elasticsearch.org/elasticsearch/elasticsearch/elasticsearch-1.4.2.tar.gz

$tar -zxvf elasticsearch-1.4.2.tar.gz

$cd elasticsearch-1.4.2/

edit elasticsearch.yml$sudo nano /opt/elasticsearch/config/elasticsearch.yml

ctrl+w search for cluster.name

Change the cluster name to elastic_yourname

ctrl+x Y

Now start ElasticSearch sudo ./elasticsearch

Verifying Elasticsearch Installation$curl XGET http://localhost:9200Expected Output:{ "status" : 200, "name" : "Edwin Jarvis", "cluster_name" : "elastic_yourname", "version" : {"number" : "1.4.2","build_hash" : "927caff6f05403e936c20bf4529f144f0c89fd8c","build_timestamp" : "2014-12-16T14:11:12Z","build_snapshot" : false,"lucene_version" : "4.10.2" }, "tagline" : "You Know, for Search"}

Terminologies of Elastic Search!Cluster

A cluster is a collection of one or more nodes (servers) that together holds your entire data and provides federated indexing and search capabilities across all nodes

A cluster is identified by a unique name which by default is "elasticsearch"

Terminologies of Elastic Search!Node

It is an elasticsearch instance (a java process)

A node is created when a elasticsearch instance is started

A random Marvel Charater name is allocated by default

Terminologies of Elastic Search!Index

An index is a collection of documents that have somewhat similar characteristics. eg:customer data, product catalog

Very crucial while performing indexing, search, update, and delete operations against the documents in it

One can define as many indexes in one single cluster

Document

It is the most basic unit of information which can be indexed

It is expressed in json (key:value) pair. {user:nullcon}

Every Document gets associated with a type and a unique id.

Terminologies of Elastic Search!

Terminologies of Elastic Search!Shard

Every index can be split into multiple shards to be able to distribute data.The shard is the atomic part of an index, which can be distributed over the cluster if you add more nodes.By default 5 primary shards and 1 replica shards are created while starting elasticsearch

____ ____ | 1 | | 2 | | 3 | | 4 | | 5 | |____| |____|

Atleast 2 Nodes are required for replicas to be created

Plugins of Elasticsearchhead./plugin -install mobz/elasticsearch-head

HQ./plugin -install royrusso/elasticsearch-HQ

Bigdesk./plugin -install lukas-vlcek/bigdesk

Restful APIs over http -- !help curlcurl -X ':///?' -d ''

VERB-The appropriate HTTP method or verb: GET, POST, PUT, HEAD, or DELETE.PROTOCOL-Either http or https (if you have an https proxy in front of Elasticsearch.)HOST-The hostname of any node in your Elasticsearch cluster, or localhost for a node on your local machine.PORT-The port running the Elasticsearch HTTP service, which defaults to 9200.QUERY_STRING-Any optional query-string parameters (for example ?pretty will pretty-print the JSON response to make it easier to read.)BODY-A JSON encoded request body (if the request needs one.)

!help curl

Simple Index Creation with XPUT: curl -XPUT 'http://localhost:9200/twitter/'

Add data to your created index:curl -XPUT 'http://localhost:9200/twitter/tweet/1' -d '{"user":"nullcon"}'

Now check the Index status:curl -XGET 'http://localhost:9200/twitter/?pretty=true'

!help curl

Automatic doc creation in an index with XPOST:curl -XPOST http://localhost:9200/twitter/tweet/' -d {user:nullcon}Creating a user profile doc:curl -XPUT 'http://localhost:9200/twitter/tweet/9' -d '{"user:admin, role:tester, sex:"male"}'Searching a doc in an index:First create 2 docs:curl -XPOST 'http://localhost:9200/twitter/tester/' -d '{"user":"abcd", "role":"tester", "sex":"male"}'curl -XPOST 'http://localhost:9200/twitter/tester/' -d '{"user":"abcd", "role":"admin", "sex":"male"}'curl -XGET 'http://localhost:9200/twitter/_search?q=user:abcd&pretty=true'

!help curlDeleting an doc in an index:$curl -XDELETE 'http://localhost:9200/twitter/tweet/1'

Cluster Health: (yellow to green)/ Significance of colours(yellow/green/red)$curl -XGET http://localhost:9200/_cluster/health?pretty=true

$./elasticsearch -D es.config=../config/elasticsearch2.yml &

Installing Kibana$cd /var/www/html

$curl O https://download.elasticsearch.org/kibana/kibana/kibana-3.1.2.tar.gz

$tar xzvf kibana-3.1.2.tar.gz

$mv kibana-3.1.2 kibana

Setting up Elasticsearch & KibanaStarting your elasticsearch server(default on 9200)

$cd /opt/elasticsearch-1.4.2/bin/

Edit elasticsearch.yml and add below 2 lines:http.cors.enabled: truehttp.cors.allow-origin to the correct protocol, hostname, and port For example, http://mycompany.com:8080, not http://mycompany.com:8080/kibana.

$sudo ./elasticsearch &

Logstash ConfigurationManaging events and logsCollect data Parse dataEnrich data

Store data (search and visualizing) } input} filter} output

Logstash Inputcollectd drupal_dblog elasticsearcheventlog exec file ganglia gelf gemfiregenerator graphite heroku imap irc jmxlog4j lumberjack pipe puppet_facterrabbitmq redis relp s3 snmptrap sqlitesqs stdin stomp syslog tcp twitter udpunix varnishlog websocket wmi xmppzenoss zeromq

Logstash output!boundary circonus cloudwatch csv datadogelasticsearch exec email file ganglia gelfgemfire google_bigquery google_cloud_storagegraphite graphtastic hipchat http irc jirajuggernaut librato loggly lumberjackmetriccatcher mongodb nagios null opentsdbpagerduty pipe rabbitmq redis riak riemann s3sns solr_http sqs statsd stdout stomp syslogtcp udp websocket xmpp zabbix zeromq

Installing & Configuring Logstash$cd /opt

$curl O https://download.elasticsearch.org/logstash/logstash/logstash-1.4.2.tar.gz

$tar zxvf logstash-1.4.2.tar.gz

Starting logstash

$cd /opt/logstash-1.4.2/bin/

Lets start the most basic setup

continued

run this!./logstash -e 'input { stdin { } } output {elasticsearch {host => localhost } }'

Check head pluginhttp://localhost:9200/_plugin/head

...continuedSetup - Apache access.log

input { file { path => [ "/var/log/apache2/access.log" ] }}

filter { grok { pattern => "%{COMBINEDAPACHELOG}" } }

output { elasticsearch { host => localhost protocol => http index => indexname }}

Now do it for syslog

Understanding GrokWhy grok?

actual regex to parse apache logs

Understanding GrokUnderstanding grok nomenclature.

The syntax for a grok pattern is %{SYNTAX:SEMANTIC}SYNTAX is the name of the pattern that will match your text.E.g 1337 will be matched by the NUMBER pattern, 254.254.254 will be matched by the IP pattern.SEMANTIC is the identifier you give to the piece of text being matched.E.g. 1337 could be the count and 254.254.254 could be a client making a request%{NUMBER:count} %{IP:client}

Playing with grok filtersGROK Playground: https://grokdebug.herokuapp.com/Apache access.log event:123.249.19.22 - - [01/Feb/2015:14:12:13 +0000] "GET /manager/html HTTP/1.1" 404 448 "-" "Mozilla/3.0 (compatible; Indy Library)"

Matching grok:%{IPV4} %{USER:ident} %{USER:auth} \[%{HTTPDATE:ti

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