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    iqjks okd~thou ds lkFk e`R;qdk] lkalkfjd lq[k ds lkFk nq%[k dk ,oala;ksx ds lkFk fo;ksx dk laca/k kkor

    lR; gS] fdUrqHkkSfrd lq[kksa ds vkdkZ.k esavkc) euq; kkor lR; dh mis{kk djrk jgrk gSA ;g ekuo

    thou uoj gS] /kU;&/kkU; thou&tk;nkn NwVus okysgSa] ?kj&ifjokj Hkh vfUre j{kd ughagS rFkkfi euq;bUghadks vius lq[k dk lk/ku le>dj buls eeRo djrk jgrk gSA eeRo djuk euq; dh Hkwy gSA ;g lR;

    dh le> dj inkZ Mky nsrk gSAtc eR;qfudV vkrh gS rks foosdkhy ekuo dks yxrk gS thou O;FkZ x;kA fdUrq dqN izk.kh e`R;qds

    le; lkspus&le>us dh {kerk Hkh [kks nsrs gSaA dqN euq; ,sls gksrs gSatks vpkud gh thou lekIr dj pynsrs gSaA os izk.kh lkSHkkX;kkyh gSatks bfUnz;] cqf) ,oaeu ds LoLFk jgrs gq, lR; dks le>dj mldk thou es

    vkpj.k dj ysrs gSaAJherh jru pksjfM;k us viuh iqLrd ^^vkRe&oSHko** esa vkRek ds xq.kksa ds {kerkvksa dk fnXnkZu

    djk;k gS rFkk vfjgUr] fl)] vkpk;Z] mik/;k; ,oalk/kq&lk/oh :i iap ijesBh dh fokskrkvksadk o.kZu

    djrs gq, mudh kj.k xzg.k djus dh izsj.kk dh gSA bl vkRek esavuUrkfDr fo|eku gS] mldk oSHko vuwBkgS] fdUrq vKkuh euq; mls igpkuus esa l{ke ugha gksrkA mlds fy, ;fn og fujUrj ckjg Hkkoukvksa dkfpUru djsarks mldh n`fV esaifjorZu lEHko gSA Jherh pksjfM;k us vfuR;] vkj.k] lalkj] ,dRo vkfn

    Hkkoukvksadk cks/k ijd lqUnj fp=.k fd;k gSA ;fn dksbZ budk fu;fer fpUru euu djsa rks mlds fopkj

    LiV ,oavkpj.k mUur gks ldrk gSA vkt euq; ckgj ls fueZy fn[kus ds iz;kl djrk gS ,oaHkhrj ls fofo/kfodkjksals xzLr jgrk gSA mls vius dks foey cukus ds fy, vkReykspu dh vko;drk gSA og ftu vBkjg

    ikiksadk vtZu djus esayxk gqvk gS] mUgsavkRekykspu }kjk nwj djus dh vko;drk gSA ysf[kdk us 18 ikiks

    dk o.kZu djrs gq, muls cpus dk Hkko tkxr djus dk iz;kl fd;k gSA iqLrd esa kqHk ,oakq) Hkkoksadksviukus rFkk vkqHk Hkkoksadks NksM+us dk lansk lgt gh fey tkrk gSA

    ysf[kdk dh Hkkkk lgt gS rFkk kSyh vkRe&cks/k ijd ,oa n; ra= dks >adr djus okyh gSA ;g

    iqLrd dsoy eR;qds fudV igqps O;fDr;ksads iBu&Jo.k ds fy, gh ugh vfirqnSfud lkekU; thou esaHkhizsj.kknk;h gSA vkkk gS ikBd blls vo;ykHkkfUor gks axsA

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    ysf[kdk ifjp;vknkZ] xfg.kh] e/kqj Hkkkh] ljl Hkkk.k esafuiq.k] ljyn;k] fon wkh ysf[kdk Jherh jru pksjfM+;k

    dk tUe vklkst k qDyk 3 laor~2003 rnuqlkj fnukad 27 flrEcj] 1946 dks tks/kiqj esalqJkod ,oalektlsoh Jh lksepUn th ljkZQ dh /keZiRuh Jherh ehedaoj th dh dqf{k ls gqvkA kSkokoLFkk ls gh vkidks

    uSfrd o /kkfeZd laLdkj iSrd fojklr esa izkIr gq,A ;qokoLFkk esa vkidk fookg tks/kiqj ds tkus&ekus

    lqlaLdkfjr /kkfeZd ifjokj esaLoxhZ; Jh dY;k.key th pksjfM;k ds lqiq= Jh papyey th pksjfM;k dslkFk gqvkA Jh papyey th pksjfM;k bathfu;j gksus ds lkFk izHkkokkyh Lokoyach fcuk nok dh ekSfydvfgalkRed fpfdRlk i)fr;ksads izsj.kk lzksr ds :i esa[;kfr izkIr fpfdRld ekus tkrs gSaA

    vkids lcls cM+s tsB Jh dudey th pksjfM;k enzkl ds fuLi`gh Jkod ,oalkgqdkj isV la?k ds iwoZv/;{k ds :i esa rFkk v-Hkk-Jh tSu jRu fgrSkh Jkod la?k ds laj{kd ,oa jRuoakh; kklu lsok lfefr ds

    lnL; ds :i esa fpj&ifjfpr O;fDrRo ds /kuh gSA vkids nwljs tsB Jh izlUuey th xkfn;k paxyisV

    rfeyukMq dh vusd lkekftd ,oa /kkfeZd laLFkkvksads lEekfur inksa ij izfrfBr gSaA vkids rhljs tsB

    Jh izdkkey th pksjfM;k lh-,- vf[ky Hkkjrh; Lrj ij /kkfeZd izu&eap dk;Zeksads dqky izLrksrk ds:i esafo[;kr gSaAvkids lqiq= Jh vkksd th pk sjfM;k lh-,- Jh v-Hkk-Jh tSu jRu ;qod la?k ds egklfpo gSarFkk

    vius iSr`d O;olk; pksjfM;k bysfDVdYl dk lQyrkiwoZd lapkyu dj vius firkJh dks vf/kdrele; /kkfeZd ,oa lkekftd lsok dk;ksZa esa iznku djus esa lg;ksx ns jgs gSaA vkksd th kkUr&LoHkkoh]

    ferHkkkh ,oavusd FkksdM+ksads tkudkj gSA fu;fer Lok/;k;] lkekf;d djrs gq, vusd ozr&izR;k[;kuksadslkFk viuk thou ;kiu djrs jgs gSaA vkidh iq=o/kwJherh dkty th pksjfM;k t;iqj ds izfl) tokgjkr

    O;olk;h ,oafofkV lk/kd Jh VhdepUnth ghjkor dh lqiq=h gSA dkty th us y?kqo; esa/kkfed laLdkjk sdh fo|ekurk ls vBkbZ] X;kjg ,oaekl[ke.k tSlh cM+h riL;k dj vius nksuksadqyksadk xkSjo c

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    fuiUu fd;k gSA fofHkUu /kkfeZd izfk{k.k fkfojksads lapkyu ,oav/;kiu gsrqvki lnSo viuh fu%kqYd

    lsok,iznku djus esarRij jgrh gSaAJh LFkkudoklh tSu Lok/;k; la?k dh vki fiNys 30 okksZ ls vf/kd ofjB Lok/;k;h ds :i esaviuh

    lsok,iznku dj jgh gSaA lu 1995 esavkidks i;qZk.k iokZjk/ku gsrqgkaxdkax tSls fonskh jkV esaHkstk x;k

    tgkvkius viuh ;ksX;rk dh izHkkoh Nki vafdr dhA Lok/;k; la?k }kjk vk;ksftr izpkj&izlkj ;k=kvksa es

    Hkh vkidh lsok, izkIr gksrh jgrh gSA fofHkUu lkekftd ,oa /kkfeZd vk;kstuksa esa vki vius n; LikhfpUrukhy fopkjksals tuekul dks vkdfkZr dj ysrh gSA ikfjokfjd ,oalkekftd nkf;Roksads izfr ltxrk

    tkxr djus okyh tks/kiqj dh fo[;kr laLFkk tSu&fczxsM dh efgyk kk[kk dh vki HkwriwoZ v/;{kk gSaA vktHkh pkgs tSu fczxsM dk dksbZ dk;Z gks] pkgs /kkfeZd fkfoj dk dk;Z gks lc vkils ijkekZ dks ego nsdj

    dk;Z djrs gSaAizLrqr iqLrd esa vkius vkRek dk okLrfod Lo:i] vfuR;kfn ckjg Hkkoukvksa dk fpUru] vBkjg

    ikiksadh vkykspuk o lPps vkfRed oSHko dks cgqr gh ljy ,oa cks/kxE; kCnksaesale>k;k gSA tks vkidheu fLFkfr dk ifjpk;d gksus ds lkFk gh ikBdksads vUrj n; dks >d>ksjus okyk gSA

    &/keZpUn tSu] jftLVkj&vf[ky Hkkjrh; Jh tSujRu vk/;kfRed fk{k.k cksM

    ftKklq thoksa ds fy;s lqUnj migkjtc&tc fdlh chekj O;fDr dh lkrk iwNus ds fy;s eSatkrh] rc ogkcSBs O;fDr dgrs fd vki vk;s

    gSarks bUgsadqN Kku dh ckrsalquk;sa] le>k;saA chekj O;fDr Hkh ;fn ltx gksrk gS rks og Hkh ml le; ugha ;gh

    pkgrk gS fd dqN Kku dh ckrsa lquus dks feys] ftlls esjk vkkZ&jkSnz /;ku de gksA vafre osyk esa O;fDr

    vius ikiksadh vkykspuk o izk;fpr djuk pkgrk gSA ,slh Kku&Hkjh ckrsalquuk pkgrk gS fd ftlls eu dks

    kkafr feysA ml le; mudh lkrk iwNus vkus okys O;fDr;ksadks Hkh oSjkX;izn ckrsavPNh yxrh gSA blfy;svUreZu esa,d fopkj txk fd D;ksa u vius laxfgr fopkjksa dks iqLrd dk :i ns nw] ftlls lcdkss ykHk

    feysaAge lcds thou esadbZ ckj ,sls uktqd {k.k vkrs gSatc gekjk eu vkkar] papy o nq%[kh cu tkrk

    gSA ftUnxh ds mu {k.kksaesa ;fn vPNs fopkj lquus o is ,sls fopkj is kkafr feyrh g S

    rks lcdks kkafr feysxh] , slk esjk fookl gSAgekjk thou ,d laxzke gSA bl txr esagj O;fDr dks fujUrj dbZ leL;kvksals la?kkZ djuk iM+rk gS

    bl la?kkZe; fLFkfr esadbZ ckj ge ewfPNZr gksdj fnkkHkzfer gks tkrs gSaA mu {k.kksaesagekjk eu cM+h nqfo/kk e siM+ tkrk gSA ge fu.kZ; ugha dj ikrs fd ,slh ifjfLFkfr esa ge D;k djsa\ dHkh&dHkh ;g vfu.kZ; dh fLFkfr

    bruh izcy gks tkrh gS fd ge fujkkk] dq.Bk] lak;] vfup; o fdadkZO;ew

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    fkfFky] jksxh o nq%[kh cu tkrs gSaA esjs thou esaHkh dbZ ckj ,sls fodV {k.k mifLFkr gq, tc eSa fu.kZ; ugh

    dj ldhA ,slh ifjfLFkfr;kvk;s rc ge D;k djsa] fdlds ikl tk;sa] fdlds lkeus tkdj viuk nq%[k ckaVs]dSls nq%[kh eu dks le>k;sa] dSls cks/k izkIrdjsa] fdlls ekxZnkZu ik;sa\ thou ds bu uktqd {k.kksaesavius

    eu ds cks> dks dqN gYdk dj ldsaA viuh leL;kvksadk lek/kku izkIr dj ldsaA ,sls fopkj ckj&ckj esjs

    eu dks vkUnksfyr djrsA ml le; eq>s ckj&ckj loZK] loZnkhZ ijekRek dh ;kn vkrh fd gs izHkq! bl le;

    ;fn vki gekjs lkeus gksrs rks ge vkids ikl vkdj viuh kadkvksa o leL;kvksa dk lek/kku ikrsA fdarqgekjk nqHkkZX; gS fd vkt ftusoj ijekRek gekj s lkeus ughagS vkSj u gh ,sls Kkuh xq# HkxoUr gSaftuds ikl

    tkdj ge vius ikiksadh vkykspuk lPps fny ls] ljyo kq) n; ls dj ldsa] rFkk muls ekxZ nkZu izkIrdj ldsaA bu ckrksa dks eSaus [kwc lkspk] fparu o euu fd;k] rc lglk ftuok.kh ek dk [;ky vk;k

    ftuok.kh thou esagrkk o fujkk O;fDr;ksadks thou thus dh izsj.kk nsrh gSA Hkwys&HkVds bUlkuksads fy;sekxZ&iznkZd dk dke djrh gSA muuktqd {k.kksa esa;fn gekjk flapu djsa rks gekjk eu kkar o tkx`r cu

    ldrk gSA ;g ftuok.kh ekrk tUenk=h ekls vf/kd midkjh gS] kgn ls ehBh gS] b= ls vf/kd lqxfU/kr gSghjs] iUus] ek.kd] eksrh ls vf/kd dherh] bldk ,d&,d kCn gSA ;g nq%[kh eu dks /kS;Z o

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    ftuok.kh esagSA lE;d~ fparu o lE;d~ foosd esagSaA ge viuh thou iksFkh dks [kksydj vkRefujh{k.k ds

    }kjk euu o fparu dj vius thou dks lgh fnkk esaeksM+dj vkRe&dY;k.k ds iFk ij vkxs ls vkxs c

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    eSaus viuh ftUnxh ds fdrus {k.k vius fy;s fcrk;sao fdrus ijk;ksads fy;sA mlls eq>s D;k feykA tks&tks

    iki dk;Z eSaus fd;s] mudks djus ds ipkr~esjk D;k gksxk\ dksbZ esjk ugha] eSa fdlh dk ugha] fQj eSaO;FkZ deksZds Hkkj dks D;ksacs lq[kh cuuk gS rks viuh vkRek dk le> iwoZd neu djuk pkfg;sA ijokrk esaeSaus cgqr dV lgu fd;s

    gSa] ij mlls esjk dqN ughagqvkA le>iwoZd bPNkvksa] oklukvksao fodkjksadks thr dj gh eSavkRek ij fot;

    izkIrdj ldrh gwA jkx&}sk ds izlax mifLFkr gksus ij Hkh ftlds thou esa leHkko ds iqi f[kyrs gSa] oghO;fDr lq[kh cu ldrk gSA jkx&}sk] eksg&vKku Hkkoksals gh gekjs eu dh kkafr Hkax gksrh gSA dkSu D;k djrk

    gS] dgktkrk gS] mfpr dj jgk gS ;k vuqfpr dj jgk gS] ,slk lkspus ls gesaD;k feysxk\ gekjs gh eu dsifj.kke fcxM+rs gSaA eSaD;ksa,sls fopkj dj viuh vkRek dks efyu cuk jgh gwA eq>s Lo;adks lq/kkjuk gS] nwljks

    dks lq/kkjuk esjs ok dh ckr ughagSaA eq>s vius ckjs esalkspuk gSA vuqdwy o izfrdwy dksbZ Hkh izlax es jh kkafrHkax u djsaA bldk eq>s /;ku j[kuk pkfg,A

    tc&tc gesa i zfrdwy O;fDr ;k oLr qfeys] rc&rc ;gh lkspuk pkfg;s fd vHkh esjs vkqHk deksZadkmn; gSA ;g rks fufek gSA eq>s esjs Hkkoksadks laHkkyuk gSA eSavius gh fopkjksa ls nq%[kh curh gwrFkk vius lkFk

    jgus okyksa dks Hkh nq%[kh cukrh gwA eSaus vkt rd foukkh dks ikus ds fy;s gh viuh lEiw.kZ kfDr yxkbZ]vfoukkh dk rks eq>s Hkku gh ughagqvkA lalkj ds dk;ksZadks vkt rd fdlh us iwjk fd;k ugha] fQj D;ksaeS

    O;FkZ ifjJe dj jgh gwA ;g nsg eq>s iwoZ esaca/ks deksZadk {k; djus ds fy;s feyh gSA iki D;k gS\ ge mu ikiksdh e;kZnk dSls djsa\ geus bu ikiksadks