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  • Astronomy 101 The Solar System

    Tuesday, Thursday 2:30-3:45 pm Hasbrouck 20

    Tom Burbine tomburbine@astro.umass.edu

  • Course

    • Course Website: – http://blogs.umass.edu/astron101-tburbine/

    • Textbook: – Pathways to Astronomy (2nd Edition) by Stephen Schneider

    and Thomas Arny. • You also will need a calculator.

    http://blogs.umass.edu/astron101-tburbine/�

  • Office Hours

    • Mine • Tuesday, Thursday - 1:15-2:15pm • Lederle Graduate Research Tower C 632

    • Neil • Tuesday, Thursday - 11 am-noon • Lederle Graduate Research Tower B 619-O

  • Homework

    • We will use Spark • https://spark.oit.umass.edu/webct/logonDisplay.d

    owebct • Homework will be due approximately twice a

    week

    https://spark.oit.umass.edu/webct/logonDisplay.dowebct� https://spark.oit.umass.edu/webct/logonDisplay.dowebct�

  • Astronomy Information • Astronomy Help Desk • Mon-Thurs 7-9pm • Hasbrouck 205

    • The Observatory should be open on clear Thursdays

    • Students should check the observatory website at: http://www.astro.umass.edu/~orchardhill for updated information

    • There's a map to the observatory on the website.

    https://umail.oit.umass.edu/horde/util/go.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.astro.umass.edu%2F%7Eorchardhill&Horde=5a040d54460ef034e421a7623d317d9e�

  • Final

    • Monday - 12/14 • 4:00 pm • Hasbrouck 20

  • HW #12 and #13

    • Due today

  • HW #14

    • Due Tuesday at 2:30 pm

  • Exam #3

    • Next Thursday • Covers material from October 15th – November 5th

    • Formulas Density = mass/volume Volume = 4/3πr3

  • • Luna 2 - impact on the surface of the Moon (1959) (USSR) • Luna 3 - first photos of the far side of the Moon (1959)

    (USSR) • Apollo - Six manned landings on the Moon with sample

    return 1969-72. – (The seventh landing, Apollo 18, was canceled for

    political reasons) • Luna 16 - automated sample return from the Moon (1970)

    (USSR) • Clementine - a joint mission of the Ballistic Missile Defense

    Organization and NASA (1994) • Lunar Prospector - the first NASA mission to the Moon in

    almost 30 years (1998-1999) • SMART-1 - The European Space Agency’s (ESA) spacecraft

    orbited the Moon and then crashed into the Moon in (September, 2006)

  • Currently • Japanese SELENE mission (also known as Kaguya) orbited the

    Moon • Goal was "to obtain scientific data of the lunar origin and evolution

    and to develop the technology for the future lunar exploration"

    http://www.selene.jaxa.jp/en/about/image/img_equipment_001_e.jpg

  • Pythagoras Crater from SMART-1

    http://www.space.com/imageoftheday/image_of_day_060626.html http://cdn2.libsyn.com/astronomy/moon_show20.gif?nvb=20081110153501&nva=20081111153501&t=0b619a8f8100c5f7820f5

  • Pythagoras Crater from Selene

    http://wms.selene.jaxa.jp/data/en/hdtv/006/hdtv_006_3/hdtv_006_3_l.jpg

    Diameter 130 km, Depth 5.0 km

  • • http://space.jaxa.jp/movie/20080411_kaguya_mo vie01_e.html

    http://space.jaxa.jp/movie/20080411_kaguya_movie01_e.html� http://space.jaxa.jp/movie/20080411_kaguya_movie01_e.html�

  • • India's national space agency launched Chandrayaan-1, an unmanned lunar orbiter, on October 22, 2008.

    • Estimated cost is $80 million • The probe revolved around the Moon for ~1 years (no

    longer working) • Its scientific objectives were to prepare a three-

    dimensional atlas of the near and far side of the moon and to conduct a chemical and mineralogical mapping of the lunar surface.

  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/89/Chandrayaan1_Spacecraft_Discovery_Moon_Water.jpg

  • Chandrayaan-1

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Chandrayaan_1.jpg

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Chandrayaan_1.jpg�

  • • A total of 382 kg of rock samples were returned to the Earth by the Apollo and Luna programs.

    • Apollo - 381.69 kg • Luna – 300 g

    http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/database/MasterCatalog?sc=1970-072A

    Luna 16

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Apollo_16_LM.jpg

    Apollo 16

    http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/image/spacecraft/luna-16.jpg� http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/b6/Apollo_16_LM.jpg�

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Apollo_15_Genesis_Rock.jpg

    Apollo 15 sample “Genesis Rock” Very ancient sample 4 billion years old

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Apollo_15_Genesis_Rock.jpg�

  • Rocks and More Moon

  • • Mineral – A naturally occurring, homogeneous inorganic solid substance having a definite chemical composition and characteristic crystal structure

    • Rock - naturally occurring aggregate of minerals

  • Forming Different Mineralogies

    • Can be on a planet-scale • Or a few meters to kilometers

  • http://www.gly.fsu.edu/~salters/GLY1000/8Igneous_rocks/Slide16.jpg

    Some minerals form before other minerals

  • What minerals form?

    • Depends on the composition of the magma • Depends how quickly the magma cools

  • Types of Rocks

    • Igneous – rock that solidified from molten or partially molten material

    • Metamorphic - rock that has changed in composition, mineral content, texture, or structure by the application of heat or pressure

    • Sedimentary – rock formed from material that was deposited as sediment by water, wind, or ice and then compressed and cemented

  • Igneous Rock

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Magma.jpg

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e0/Magma.jpg�

  • Metamorphism

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Quartzite.jpg

    Quartzite

  • Sedimentary • Examples of two types of sedimentary rock: limey

    shale overlaid by limestone

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Limestoneshale7342.jpg

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/32/Limestoneshale7342.jpg�

  • • Rock formed from sediments covers 75-80% of the Earth's land area

  • Lunar Meteorites • ~60 are known • only 1 in 1200 meteorites are lunar • Lunar meteorites are expensive • http://www.meteorites.tv/298-buy-a-lunar-

    meteorite • By comparison, the price of 24-carat gold is about

    $20 per gram and gem-quality diamonds start at $1000-2000/gram.

    http://epsc.wustl.edu/admin/resources/moon_meteorites.html

    http://www.meteorites.tv/298-buy-a-lunar-meteorite� http://www.meteorites.tv/298-buy-a-lunar-meteorite�

  • Mare

    http://epsc.wustl.edu/admin/resources/moon/howdoweknow.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Lunar_Ferroan_Anorthosite_60025.jpg

    Lunar Highlands

    http://epsc.wustl.edu/admin/resources/moon/10049_l.gif� http://epsc.wustl.edu/admin/resources/moon/howdoweknow.html� http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Lunar_Ferroan_Anorthosite_60025.jpg� http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Lunar_Ferroan_Anorthosite_60025.jpg�

  • • Highlands – contain Al-rich material – Plagioclase feldspar - CaAl2Si2O8

    • Mare – contain Fe-rich material – basaltic eruptions – Olivine - (Mg, Fe)2SiO4 – Pyroxene – (Mg,Fe)SiO3 – Ilmenite - FeTiO3

  • http://epsc.wustl.edu/admin/resources/moon_meteorites.html

    Fe-rich

    Al-rich

  • Magma Ocean

  • How do you form the Moon?

  • Definitions

    • Volatile – evaporates easily • Refractory – does not evaporate easily

  • Need to account for these things

    • The Moon's low density (3.3 g/cc) shows that it does not have a substantial iron core like the Earth does.

    • Moon rocks contain few volatile substances (e.g. water), which implies extra baking of the lunar surface relative to that of Earth.

    • The relative abundance of oxygen isotopes on Earth and on the Moon are identical, which suggests that the Earth and Moon formed at the same distance from the Sun.

  • Oxygen Isotopes • There are three stable isotopes of oxygen • They have masses of 16, 17, and 18 atomic mass units

    %

    • 16O ~99.762 • 17O ~0.038 • 18O ~0.200 • The oxygen isotopic ratios (17O/16O and 18O/16O of

    silicate rocks from the Earth and Moon are the same and are different from most meteorites and Mars

  • http://www4.nau.edu/meteorite/Meteorite/Images/MeteoriteOxygen9.jpg

  • Giant impact Hypothesis • Formation of the Moon as a result of a collision between

    the young Earth and a Mars-sized body • Evidence

    – oxygen isotope ratios of Moon identical to those of Earth. – A large portion of the Moon appears to have been once

    molten, and a giant impact scenario could easily have supplied the energy needed to form such a magma ocean.

    – The Earth has a large iron core, but the moon does not. This may be because Earth's iron had already drained into the core by the time the

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