assessment of range lands degradation in the timahdit area

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ASSESSMENT OF RANGE LANDS DEGRADATION IN THE TIMAHDIT AREA Slide 2 Morocco: 53 millions ha Range lands Range lands in Morocco 30% of the requierements of livestock Middle Atlas : 1,2 millions dha 22% National livestock 74% national territory 3,5 billoins of UF 2.26% of national rangelands 58% of the requierements Slide 3 Location of the study area The Ait arfa du Guigou territory which account for the rural community of Timahdit which is located 33 km south of the city of Azrou on the National Road 13 going from Mekns to Midelt. Slide 4 Timahdit Slide 5 Study site : The Ait Arfa du Guigou Tribe 5 Slide 6 Climate City of Azrou City of Ifrane Slide 7 Humidity Slide 8 Climate Evapotranspiration Evapotranspiration averaged (in Azrou for the period 2006-2011) = 3.08 mm/day. Evapotranspiration varies from 1.6 mm/day in December-January to 5.8 mm/day in June. Slide 9 Geomorphology Slide 10 Soils Two major types: Those that are derived from basaltic prent materiel: Brown soils found in depressions, vertisols, lithosols and andosols. Those that are derived from limestone and dolomitic parent material: Red soils, renzines. Most soils are shalow and extremely stony. Slide 11 Elevation Slide 12 Vegetation Slide 13 Agriculture Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Livestock Slide 17 Population (census 2004) Slide 18 Evolution of the population Slide 19 Population Structure Slide 20 Illiteracy rate and langages spoken and written Slide 21 Population activity Slide 22 Employment status of employed and unemployed who have worked Slide 23 Population aged 10 and over by educational attainment Slide 24 Housing type Slide 25 Housing tenure Slide 26 Age of dwellings Slide 27 Basic equipment housing Slide 28 Other equipments Slide 29 IAV HASSAN II - Septembre 2011 Storyline of the study area Contribution ltude de la dgradation des parcours au Moyen Atlas : Cas de la fraction des At Ben Yacoub de la tribu des At Arfa du Guigou Period Principles events Responses to events 19 th centry Arrival of the Bni MGuild tribe Occupation of space Dlimitation of forests 1917 Dlimitation of collective lands 1919 Restriction of space for grazing French colonisation of lands 1935 Reduction of space for grazing Cropping of low lands Installation of King Ranch 10 000 hecatres 1966 Reduction of grazing lands Double transhumance Slide 30 IAV HASSAN II - Septembre 2011 Story line of the study area Contribution ltude de la dgradation des parcours au Moyen Atlas : Cas de la fraction des At Ben Yacoub de la tribu des At Arfa du Guigou Period Main events Responses 1980s Project of Middle Atlas funded by the world bank Delimitation of collective grazing lands for the different sub-fractions 1990s Sedentarisation of producers and settlements on high land pastures Expanses of cropping lands and reduction of grazing areas More pronounced reduction in grazing lands 2009 Plan Maroc VertIntensification of the agriculture Break down in the double transhumance Slide 31 IAV HASSAN II - Septembre 2011 Main national development policies of grazing land Contribution ltude de la dgradation des parcours au Moyen Atlas : Cas de la fraction des At Ben Yacoub de la tribu des At Arfa du Guigou Period Policies 25 july1969 Code des Investissements Agricoles (Agricultural Investment Code) Installation of 18Perimeter for Pastoral Improvments 27 October 1995 2009Plan Maroc Vert Law Number 33 94 for the Development of the Perimeter in run fed areas that include grazing ares Slide 32 IAV HASSAN II - Septembre 2011 Main regional development policies of grazing land Contribution ltude de la dgradation des parcours au Moyen Atlas : Cas de la fraction des At Ben Yacoub de la tribu des At Arfa du Guigou Period Policies 1950 to 1970 Preventive Health campaign with socio economical incidence 1970s Perimeters for pastoral improvement (Timahdit) 1980s & 1990s 2000sIntensification of Agriculture Intergrated Development Projects (Middle Atlas Project funded by World Bank) Slide 33 IAV HASSAN II - Septembre 2011 Range lands use Contribution ltude de la dgradation des parcours au Moyen Atlas : Cas de la fraction des At Ben Yacoub de la tribu des At Arfa du Guigou Range lands use Nouabs: delimita tion Survey of users: 514 users Tribal origin Settlement (GPS) Date of settlement Home range Size of flock Slide 34 IAV HASSAN II - Septembre 2011 Range lands use Contribution ltude de la dgradation des parcours au Moyen Atlas : Cas de la fraction des At Ben Yacoub de la tribu des At Arfa du Guigou Range lands use Nouabs: delimita tion Survey of users: 514 users Agriculture Mobility of flocks Suplementation Flock manageme nt Watering animals Slide 35 Main LEDD Problems Slide 36 First main findings During the last 50 years there has been a graet amount of changes : In land occupation: More land devoted to agriculture, intensification of agriculture, degradation of range lands by overgrazing; Change in the managements of sheep flocks; Change in the instutions that regulate and control the use of resources. Slide 37 1998 1989 37 Agriculture Astagalus Pelouse Matorral Genista Pelouse humide Xerophyt matoral Slide 38 20071998 38 Agriculture Astragalus Xrophytes pineuses Thymus Matorral Slide 39 Farmers cleaning from the stones Slide 40 Slide 41 Slide 42 Proportion of goats owned privately and in association by contracts Slide 43 Type of contracts used between sheep producers in the fraction of Ait Beni Hcine

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