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As Correspondents of. 概論 P&I 保險. History of P&I Insurance. P&I Club 的前身 - Hull Insurance Clubs 盛行於 18 世紀的英國 其後船東加入以互保方式共同承擔船體損害 ( 現今 P&I 的概念 , Being the insurers as well as insured). The PROTECTION. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • As Correspondents of

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • P&I

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • History of P&I Insurance P&I Club - Hull Insurance Clubs 18 ( P&I , Being the insurers as well as insured)

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • The PROTECTION1836 - De Vaux v. Salvador (1836),:3/4,1/4.1855 - Protection Club Shipowners Mutual Protection Society1/4 Clubs Mr. Peter Tindall the founder

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • The INDEMNITYWesternhope (1870) & Emily 2 (negligence in navigation) ()North of England Protection Association Shipowners Mutual Protection Society 1874 (Indemnity Class)P&I Club

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • P&I Club chronology source from www.ukpandi.com18 hull clubs (against Royal and London Assurance)1855 ,protection club (Britannia P&I )1874 Indemnity Club for cargo claims and others not covered by the protection club.Now 90%,fixed premium insurers.

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Group Reinsurance Programme *25% of US$50m ~ US$550 are Group Co-insured

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Chartered EntriesOwned EntriesUS$ 7mUS$ 15mUS$ 50mUS$ 350m

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • The Clubs

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limitedtestertester

  • P&I

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • ILLNESS, INJURY, DEATH, MEDICAL EXAMINATION i Liability to pay damages or compensation for personal injury, illness or death of any seaman whether or not on board a vessel and hospital, medical, funeral or other expenses incurred in relation to such injury, illness or death. ii Liability to pay expenses incurred in medical examination of seamen prior to engagement. B REPATRIATION AND SUBSTITUTES' EXPENSES i The expense of repatriating a seaman of the insured vessel who has been ill or injured or has died or whose repatriation has been necessitated by a casualty to the insured vessel. ii The expense of repatriating a seaman who has been left ashore when there is a statutory obligation to do so. iii The expense of substituting a seaman who has been ill, injured or has died. iv The expense of substituting a seaman who has been left ashore or been repatriated as a result of illness, injury or statutory obligation. . (/) ,,

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • . (///)

    Liabilities in respect of persons other than seamen or passengers A ILLNESS, INJURY OR DEATH Liability to pay damages or compensation for personal injury, illness or death of any person and hospital, medical or funeral or other expenses incurred in relation to such injury, illness or death. B LOSS OF OR DAMAGE TO EFFECTS Liability to pay damages or compensation for loss of or damage to the effects of any person on board an insured vessel.

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • . ,Liabilities and expenses in relation to deserters, stowaways and refugees Liabilities and expenses, other than those covered under Section 4 of this Rule, incurred by the Member in discharging his obligations towards or making necessary arrangements for deserters (), stowaways and refugees or persons saved at sea, including rescue expenses, but only if and to the extent that the Member is legally liable for the expenses or they are incurred with the agreement of the Managers.

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • . / (Damage/Shortage) (Loss) (Handling of Damaged Cargo) (Delay) (Exceptions) HV 4.2/69 (delivery w/o production of B/L) ()

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Cargo liabilities LOSS, SHORTAGE, DAMAGE OR OTHER RESPONSIBILITY Liability for loss, shortage, damage or other responsibility arising out of any breach by the Member or by any person for whose acts, neglect or default he may be legally liable, of his obligation properly to load, handle, stow, carry, keep, care for, discharge or deliver the cargo or out of unseaworthiness or unfitness of the insured vessel. DISPOSING OF DAMAGED CARGO The additional costs and expenses, over and above those which would have been incurred by him in any event under the contract of carriage, incurred by the Member in discharging or disposing of damaged or worthless cargo, but only if and to the extent that the Member is unable to recover those costs from any other party.

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Cargo Liability - continuedHAGUE AND HAGUE-VISBY RULES Unless the Member has previously obtained appropriate special cover by agreement with the Managers or the Board in its discretion otherwise determines, there shall be no recovery from the Association in respect of liabilities which would not have been incurred or sums which would not have been payable by the Member if the cargo had been carried on terms no less favourable to the Member than those laid down in the Hague or Hague-Visby Rules, save where the contract of carriage is on terms less favourable to the Member than those laid down in the Hague or Hague-Visby Rules solely because of the relevant terms of carriage being of mandatory application

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Cargo Liability - continued Unless the Board in its discretion shall otherwise determine, there shall be no right of recovery from the Association in respect of any liabilities, costs and expenses arising from:

    - delivery of cargo carried under a negotiable bill of lading without production of that bill of lading by the person to whom delivery is made.

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Discretionary Claim - Unless and to the extent that the Directors shall in their absolute discretion otherwise determine (and in any event only if they are satisfied that the Member took such steps as appear to those Directors to be reasonable to avoid the event or circumstances giving rise to such liabilities, costs and expenses), there shall be no recovery from the Club under:the failure to arrive or late arrival of an entered ship at any port of loading

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • A Qualified Claim - Documented1. Bill of lading evidence of contract2. Packing list/Commercial invoice evidence of claim amount and cargo value3. Cargo survey report proof of fault on the part of carrier4. Rightful claimant eg: subrogation letter (The quantum)

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Collision with other vessels (P&I1/4 RDC) A CONTACT WITH OTHER VESSELS OR CARGO OR PROPERTY ON OTHER VESSELS One fourth, or such other proportion as may have been agreed by the Managers in writing, of the liabilities arising out of the collision other than the liabilities identified in paragraph B of this Section. B OTHER LIABILITIES (4/4 full liability viz. RDC ) Liability arising out of the collision for or relating to: i the raising, removal, disposal, destruction, lighting or marking of obstructions, wrecks, cargoes, or any other thing; ii any real or personal property or thing whatsoever (except other vessels or property on other vessels); iii pollution or contamination of any real or personal property except other vessels with which the insured vessel is in collision and property on such other vessels; iv the cargo or other property on the insured vessel, or general average contributions, special charges or salvage paid by the owners of that cargo or property; v loss of life, personal injury or illness.

    (ii & iv P&I ). - /-/

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Rules of the Roadi. Head Onii. Crossingiii. OvertakingLights & Signals (Part C)

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Rule 14 Head on situation

    a. When two power-driven vessels are meeting on reciprocal or nearly reciprocal courses so as to involve risk of collision, each shall alter her course to starboard so as to each shall pass on the port side of the other.b. Such a situation shall be deemed to exist when a vessel sees the other ahead or nearly ahead and by night she could see the masthead lights of the other in line or nearly in a line and/or both sidelights and by day she observes the corresponding aspect of the other vessel.c. Then a vessel is in any doubt as to whether such a situation exists she shall assume that it does exist and act accordingly.

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Rule 15 Crossing situation

    When two power-driven vessel s are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel which has the other on her starboard side shall keep out of the way and shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of the other vessel.

    Taiwan Maritime Services Limited

  • Rule 13 Overtaking

    a. any vessel overtaking any other shall keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken.

    b. A vessel shall be deemed to be overtaking when coming up with another vessel from a direction more than 22.5 degrees abaft her beam , that is, in such a position with reference to the vessel she is overtaking, that at night she would be able to see only the stern light of that vessel but neither of her sidelights.

    c. When a vessel is in any doubt as to whether she is overtaking another, she shall assume that this is the case and act accordingly.

    d. Any subsequent alteration of bearing between the two vessels shall not make the overtaking vessel a crossing vessel within t