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<p>Human Settlements -1 (AAU-106) Process and Evolution of Urban Development Significant Markers CHINESE CIVILIZATION LECTURE 1</p> <p>History of Design </p> <p>Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau</p> <p>LECTURE 5</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauTime frameindustrial revolution 1750 -1850</p> <p>arts and crafts 1860 to 1910</p> <p>victorian era 1837 to 1901</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau2</p> <p>Geographyindustrial revolution, it began in the united kingdom ( 1865 1913 us worlds leading industrial nation)arts and crafts movement, developed first and mostly in the british islesvictorian era, began in britain</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau3societysociety Before the Industrial Revolution all work was done by hand, and now it is mainly done by machines. Also when the industrial revolution came, the style of livinng for everyone changed creating other classes other than 'Rich' and 'Poor' hence the 'Middle class' which the majority of the English and American population is.</p> <p>Before the industrial revolution 80% of people earned income from the land. 4/5ths of the population lived in rural areas, leasing land from aristocrats and the wealthy and farming agriculture. Families would produce mainly what they needed to survive. IR brought about social, economical and cultural changes.History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art Nouveau4Agricultural revolutionEnclosure movement (no more open-fiend)Experimental phase</p> <p>5Jethro Tull(1674 1741)Seed Drill </p> <p>Horse Shoe</p> <p>6Demographic revolution</p> <p>7</p> <p>Social impactUrbanization and over crowding Lack of sanitation</p> <p> Cities Poluted</p> <p>Disease Homeless</p> <p> Religious tension8</p> <p>Child Labour</p> <p>9economyindustrial revolution, the basic income during the period increased ten times and the population increase 6 times in the two centuaries that followed the 1800s. "For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth ... Nothing remotely like this economic behavior has happened before". Robert E. Lucas, Jr, nobel prise winner.a transition in parts of great britains previosuly manual labour and animal based economy towards mine based manufacturing, in the later part of the 18th century.</p> <p>10</p> <p>Sectors of economy that grew dramatically during this period and had significant technological advances:Textile Industry</p> <p>Introduction of steam power</p> <p>Iron and steel</p> <p>Railway</p> <p>Coal mining</p> <p>11</p> <p>Inventions ...Steam Engine Thoman Newcomen (1663 1729)</p> <p> James Watt(1736 - 1800) VS</p> <p>James Watt's Improved Steam Engine James Watt was sent a Newcomen steam engine to repair that led him to invented improvements for steam engines.12</p> <p>... More inventions1712 Illustration of Thomas Newcomen's Steam EngineIn 1712, Thomas Newcomen together with John Calley built their first steam engine.</p> <p>Flying Shuttle, Automation of Textile Making &amp; The Industrial Revolution13Increased Yarn and Thread Production During Industrial Revolution The spinning jenny used eight spindles of instead of the one found on spinning wheels.In 1764, a British carpenter and weaver named James Hargreaves invented an improved spinning jenny,</p> <p>Spinning Frame or Water FrameRichard Arkwright patented the spinning frame or water frame that could produce stronger threads for yarns14</p> <p>Spinning Mule Increased Variety in Threads and yarn In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule that combined the moving carriage of the spinning jenny with the rollers of the water framePower Loom's Effect on the Women of the Industrial RevolutionThe power loom was a steam-powered, mechanically-operated version of a regular loom. A loom is a device that combined threads to make cloth.</p> <p>15</p> <p>Practical Sewing Machines &amp; Ready Made ClothingAfter the sewing machine was invented, the ready-made clothing industry took off. Before sewing machines, nearly all clothing was local and hand-sewn. The telegraph was invented in 1848Laying of the 1st ocean cable in 186416transport</p> <p>17During the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to incorporate steel as a building component; one of the greatest exponents of this was Joseph Paxton, architect of the Crystal Palace. In this era of prosperity new methods of construction were developed.In Scotland, the architect Alexander Thomson who practiced in Glasgow was a pioneer of the use of cast iron and steel for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and oriental themes to produce many truly original structures. </p> <p>The transept faade of the original Crystal PalaceINDUSTRIALIZATIONEffects</p> <p>Money</p> <p>AlienationImage Source: http://ia.media-imdb.com/images/M/MV5BMjMwMDA5NzEwOF5BMl5BanBnXkFtZTcwMzgwNDg3OA@@._V1_SY317_CR5,0,214,317_.jpg [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauRESPONSE TO INDUSTRIALIZATIONWilliam Morris (1834 1896)</p> <p>C R Ashbee (1863 1942)</p> <p>W R Lethaby (1857 - 1931)</p> <p>Trained as Architects and worked towards unity in the arts.</p> <p>to re-establish a harmony between architect, designer and craftsman and to bring handcraftsmanship to the production of well-designer, affordable, everyday objects.Image Source: http://media.screened.com/uploads/0/235/636117-modern_times_gears.png [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauThe introduction to Arts and Craft movementREBELLION against age of mass productionReturn to TRADITIONAL craft methods and romantic forms of decorProducts manufactured by individuals and small groupsATTACKING INDUSTRIAL AGEFloral, wavy, leaf-like designsBelieved IR made man less creative</p> <p>22RESPONSE TO INDUSTRIALIZATIONIndividual expression</p> <p>Vernacular</p> <p>Use of local materials</p> <p>improvement of commercial design always remained as serious a goal as the restoration of craftsmanship. Groups of leading designers not only set up craft societies but independent commercial companiesImage Source: http://media.screened.com/uploads/0/235/636117-modern_times_gears.png [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauSOCIAL REFORM OF ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENTChange in Working condition</p> <p>Belief in restorative power of craftsmanship</p> <p>Simple life</p> <p>Art as a way of lifeHistory of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauPRINCIPLES OF ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENTHONESTY Design Unity</p> <p>Joy in Labour</p> <p>Individualism</p> <p>RegionalismHistory of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauWILLIAM MORRIS (1834 1896)Influenced by</p> <p>Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood</p> <p>Writings ofJohn RuskinImage Source: hhttp://www.literaryplaces.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Portrait-of-William-Morris.jpg [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauHistory of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauHistory of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauTHE ARTS &amp; CRAFTS MOVEMENT</p> <p>The Arts and Crafts Movement was an international design movement that originated in Britain and flourished between 1880 and 1910. It was instigated by the artist and writer William Morris (18341896) in the 1860s and was inspired by the writings of John Ruskin (18191900). It influenced architecture, domestic design and the decorative arts, using simple forms and a medieval style of decoration. It advocated truth to materials, traditional craftsmanship and economic reform.WILLIAM MORRIS TRELLISWallpaper designer by MorrisImage Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:William_Morris_design_for_Trellis_wallpaper_1862.jpg [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauWILLIAM MORRIS RED HOUSEArchitect - Philip Webb Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/The_Red_House%2C_Bexleyheath.JPG [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauWILLIAM MORRIS RED HOUSEArchitect - Philip Webb Image Source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_w4ifTToAw5Q/TD8vQOlxSMI/AAAAAAAACh0/LVo4bxKHSfU/s1600/red+house.jpg [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauWILLIAM MORRIS RED HOUSEArchitect - Philip Webb Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Red_House_window_detail.JPG [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauC R ASHBEE (1863 1942)Influenced by</p> <p>Socialism ofWilliam Morris (Established Guild and School of Handicraftin 1888, in the slums ofWhitechapel)</p> <p>Works ofJohn RuskinImage Source: http://www.utopia-britannica.org.uk/Assets/Ashbee.jpg [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauC R ASHBEE GUILD AND SCHOOL OF HANDICRAFT"seek not only to set a higher standard of craftsmanship, but at the same time, and in so doing, to protect the status of the craftsman. To this end it endeavours to steer a mean between the independence of the artist which is individualistic and often parasitical and the trade-shop, where the workman is bound to purely commercial and antiquated traditions, and has, as a rule, neither stake in the business nor any interest beyond his weekly wage"History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauC R ASHBEE MAHOGANY VENEERED ETAGRE </p> <p>Image Source: http://www.victorianweb.org/art/design/ashbee/3.jpg [ONLINE]History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauC R ASHBEE SILVER MOUNTED DECANTER</p> <p>Image Source: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3113/3168776759_c1702917e5.jpg [ONLINE]History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauW R LETHABY (1857 - 1931)Influenced by</p> <p>His Father, craftsman and lay preacher</p> <p>Society for the Protection of Ancient BuildingsImage Source: http://stoneletters.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/william-lethaby.jpg [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauW R LETHABY BUILDING AT COLMORE ROWImage Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/122-124_Colmore_Row.jpg [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauPHILIP WEBB (1857 - 1931)Architect of the first Arts and Crafts Building The Red HouseImage Source: http://www.achome.co.uk/biographies/biographies/webb.jpg [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauPHILIP WEBB - STANDENHouse at West Sussex,England.Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b1/Standen_Exterior.jpg [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauPHILIP WEBB - STANDENHouse at West Sussex,England.Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Standen_Interior.jpg [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauINFLUENCE ON USA- ORGANIC ARCHITECTUREThe idea that every country should have an architecture that reflects its own particular history, geography and climate was central to the Arts and Crafts movement History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauINFLUENCE ON USA- DAVID B GAMBLE HOUSE</p> <p>Image Source: http://www.huntington.org/uploadedImages/Files/images/greenegamble.jpg [ONLINE]House at West Sussex,England, Designed by Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather Greene (1908)History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauINFLUENCE ON USA- DAVID B GAMBLE HOUSE</p> <p>Image Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/Gamble_Porch.jpg [ONLINE]House at West Sussex,England, Designed by Charles Sumner Greene and Henry Mather GreeneHistory of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauINFLUENCE ON USA- MILLARD HOUSE HOUSE</p> <p>Image Source: http://millardhouse.com/mhouse237/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/a_splash-2.jpg [ONLINE]F L Wright (1932)History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauINFLUENCE ON USA- MILLARD HOUSE HOUSE</p> <p>Image Source: http://millardhouse.com/mhouse237/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/a_splash-1.jpg [ONLINE]F L Wright (1923)History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauINFLUENCE ON USA- WAINWRIGHT BUILDING</p> <p>Image Source: http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/1883/flashcards/634705/jpg/wainwright-building.jpg [ONLINE]Architect Louis Sullivan (1890-91)History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauINFLUENCE ON USA- WAINWRIGHT BUILDING</p> <p>Image Source: http://larryspeck.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/78-710.jpg [ONLINE]Architect Louis Sullivan (1890-91)History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauINFLUENCE ON USA- WAINWRIGHT BUILDING</p> <p>Image Source: http://timothypflueger.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/wainwright-building-habs-cropped.jpg [ONLINE]Architect Louis Sullivan (1890-91)History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauAmerican examples of Arts &amp; Crafts style houses.</p> <p>ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT &amp; ART NOUVEAURough Timeline</p> <p>Arts and Crafts Movement 1860s 1910s</p> <p>Art Nouveau 1890s-1910sHistory of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT &amp; ART NOUVEAUPrinciples</p> <p>Imbibing all art forms</p> <p>Art as a way of lifeHistory of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauART NOUVEAU DIFFERENT FROM ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT?Use of New Materials</p> <p>Protest against the traditional</p> <p>William Morris was the theoretician whose beliefs more than those of anyone else initiated the Art Nouveau movementHistory of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauHEYGATE MACKMURDO (1851 1941) TITLE PAGE (1883) MackmurdoD first graphic expression of Art Nouveau is generally accepted as his title page for Wrens City Churches, published by G Allen in 1883Image Source: http://www.aiga.org/uploadedImages/AIGA/Content/Inspiration/Voice/ART_Patton_BackStart_300x368.jpg [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauHEYGATE MACKMURDO (1851 1941) CHAIR (1883)Image Source: http://hogd.pbworks.com/f/1254968919/Mackmurdo's%20chair.jpg [ONLINE]</p> <p>History of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauMAISON DE L'ART NOUVEAUImage Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Siegfried_bing_exposition_20050227.JPG [ONLINE]</p> <p>Opened on 1895, ParisHistory of Architecture - II (AP-313) Arts and Crafts Movement + Art NouveauCHARLES RENNIE MACKINT...</p>