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  • Artificial andComputationalIntelligence in Games

    A Follow-up to Dagstuhl Seminar 12191

    Edited by

    Simon M. LucasMichael MateasMike PreussPieter SpronckJulian Togelius

    Dagstuh l Fo l l ow-Ups Vo l . 6 www.dagstuh l .de/d fu

  • EditorsSimon M. Lucas Michael MateasSchool of Computer Science and Center for Games and Playable MediaElectronic Engineering University of California, Santa CruzUniversity of Essex

    Mike Preuss Pieter SpronckEuropean Research Center for Tilburg Center for Cognition and CommunicationInformation Systems Tilburg UniversityUniversity of Mnster

    Julian TogeliusCenter for Computer Games ResearchIT University of

    ACM Classification 1998I.2.1 Applications and Expert Systems: Games

    ISBN 978-3-939897-62-0

    Published online and open access bySchloss Dagstuhl Leibniz-Zentrum fr Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing, Saarbrcken/Wadern,Germany. Online available at

    Publication dateNovember, 2013

    Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche NationalbibliothekThe Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailedbibliographic data are available in the Internet at

    LicenseThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license: brief, this license authorizes each and everybody to share (to copy, distribute and transmit) the workunder the following conditions, without impairing or restricting the authors moral rights:

    Attribution: The work must be attributed to its authors.

    The copyright is retained by the corresponding authors.

    Digital Object Identifier: 10.4230/DFU.Vol6.12191.i

    ISBN 978-3-939897-62-0 ISSN 1868-8977

  • iii

    DFU Dagstuhl Follow-Ups

    The series Dagstuhl Follow-Ups is a publication format which offers a frame for the publication ofpeer-reviewed papers based on Dagstuhl Seminars. DFU volumes are published according to the principleof Open Access, i.e., they are available online and free of charge.

    Editorial Board

    Susanne Albers (Humboldt University Berlin)Bernd Becker (Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg)Karsten Berns (University of Kaiserslautern)Stephan Diehl (University Trier)Hannes Hartenstein (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology)Stephan Merz (INRIA Nancy)Bernhard Mitschang (University of Stuttgart)Bernhard Nebel (Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg)Han La Poutr (Utrecht University, CWI)Bernt Schiele (Max-Planck-Institute for Informatics)Nicole Schweikardt (Goethe University Frankfurt)Raimund Seidel (Saarland University)Michael Waidner (Technical University of Darmstadt)Reinhard Wilhelm (Editor-in-Chief, Saarland University, Schloss Dagstuhl)

    ISSN 1868-8977

    DFU Vo l . 6

  • Contents

    Chapter 01Search in Real-Time Video Games

    Peter I. Cowling, Michael Buro, Michal Bida, Adi Botea, Bruno Bouzy,Martin V. Butz, Philip Hingston, Hctor Muoz-Avila, Dana Nau,and Moshe Sipper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    Chapter 02Pathfinding in Games

    Adi Botea, Bruno Bouzy, Michael Buro, Christian Bauckhage, and Dana Nau . . . . 21

    Chapter 03Learning and Game AI

    Hctor Muoz-Avila, Christian Bauckhage, Michal Bida, Clare Bates Congdon,and Graham Kendall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    Chapter 04Player Modeling

    Georgios N. Yannakakis, Pieter Spronck, Daniele Loiacono, and Elisabeth Andr . 45

    Chapter 05Procedural Content Generation: Goals, Challenges and Actionable Steps

    Julian Togelius, Alex J. Champandard, Pier Luca Lanzi, Michael Mateas,Ana Paiva, Mike Preuss, and Kenneth O. Stanley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

    Chapter 06General Video Game Playing

    John Levine, Clare Bates Congdon, Marc Ebner, Graham Kendall,Simon M. Lucas, Risto Miikkulainen, Tom Schaul, and Tommy Thompson . . . . . . . 77

    Chapter 07Towards a Video Game Description Language

    Marc Ebner, John Levine, Simon M. Lucas, Tom Schaul, Tommy Thompson,and Julian Togelius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

    Chapter 08Artificial and Computational Intelligence for Games on Mobile Platforms

    Clare Bates Congdon, Philip Hingston, and Graham Kendall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

    Artificial and Computational Intelligence in Games. Dagstuhl Follow-Ups, Volume 6, ISBN 978-3-939897-62-0.Editors: Simon M. Lucas, Michael Mateas, Mike Preuss, Pieter Spronck, and Julian Togelius

    Dagstuhl PublishingSchloss Dagstuhl Leibniz Center for Informatics, Germany

  • Preface

    In May 2012, around 40 world-leading experts convened in Schloss Dagstuhl in Saarland,Southern Germany, to discuss future research directions and important research challengesfor artificial and computational intelligence in games. The volume you are now reading is thefollow-up volume to that seminar, which collects the distilled results of the discussions thatwent on during those May days. As organisers of the seminar and editors of the follow-upvolume, it is our sincere hope that the chapters you are about to read will prove to be usefulboth as references for your existing research and as starting points for new research projects.In this introductory chapter, we give some background on the research field, describe howthe seminar was held, and briefly present each of the following chapters.

    The research field

    Research into artificial intelligence (AI) and computational intelligence (CI)1 started inthe 1950s and has been growing ever since. The main focus of the research is to providecomputers with the capacity to perform tasks that are believed to require human intelligence.The field is in constant need of good benchmark problems. All benchmark problems havetheir drawbacks for instance, abstract mathematical problems might not be relevant to thereal world, and complex robotics problems can be time- and resource-consuming. In the lastdecade, computer games have been considered a strong source of benchmark problems forhuman intelligence. Humans have played games for all of recorded history, and since 1980svideo games have been a favourite pastime of people all over the world. Games provide aplethora of tough and interesting challenges for AI and CI, including developing artificialplayers, computationally creative systems that construct game content, agents that adapt toplayers, and systems that analyse and learn about players from their in-game behaviour. Asgames are developed to be challenging and interesting to humans, many game-related AIproblems are relevant to understanding human cognition and creativity as well. Additionally,game design and development have a number of outstanding problems that could be solvedby better and more appropriate AI, so there is an opportunity to make a contribution toreal-world problems.

    The study of AI and CI as applied to video games is rather new. A research fielddevoted to these topics has only started to coalesce within the last 8 years around theAAAI Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE) and IEEEComputational Intelligence and Games (CIG) conferences2. The research field is not yetdefined well, and the research community has been somewhat fractured along both thesymbolic/non-symbolic axis and along the European/American axis. A set of commonproblems and a common terminology needed to be established, and ideas needed to becross-fertilised. The Dagstuhl seminar which this volume is an outcome of was held in orderto address these challenges.

    1 The terms AI and CI are here used more or less interchangeably, even though there is a historic dividein terms of both methods studied and membership of the research communities. In general, CI methodsare more biologically inspired or statistical, whereas AI methods are more symbolical or logical, butthere is a great deal of overlap.

    2 AI and CI research into classic board games has a longer history, and is concentrated around the ICGAComputer Games (CG) and Advances in Computer Games (ACG) conferences.

    Artificial and Computational Intelligence in Games. Dagstuhl Follow-Ups, Volume 6, ISBN 978-3-939897-62-0.Editors: Simon M. Lucas, Michael Mateas, Mike Preuss, Pieter Spronck, and Julian Togelius

    Dagstuhl PublishingSchloss Dagstuhl Leibniz Center for Informatics, Germany

  • viii Preface

    The seminar and the follow-up volume

    In May 2012, we gathered around 40 researchers and practitioners of AI and CI in videogames at Schloss Dagstuhl to discuss the challenges in the field and the approaches to makeprogress on important problems. The seminar was arranged so that participants formedwork groups consisting of 310 people each, all experts on the topic of the group. The groupsdiscussed their topic for one or two days, and then reported the consensus of their findingsto the rest of the seminar. We explicitly instructed attendants to focus on the future ofthe field rather than the past, and to form groups around problems rather than particularmethods. With so many world-class experts on these topics gathered in a single seminar todiscuss the challenges of the future, it would have been a sin to not publish the outcome ofthe proceedings so it would be accessible to other researchers in the area.

    Soon after the seminar, we published a Dagstuhl Report containing abstracts o