Article 4 and article 5

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<ul><li> 1. ARTICLE 4CITIZENSHIP </li> <li> 2. "Philippine citizenship is a gift that must be deserved to be retained. The Philippines, for allher modest resources compared to those of other states, is a jealous and possessive mother demanding total love and loyalty from her children. -Justice Isagani Cruz- </li> <li> 3. What is Citizenship? A term denoting membership in a political community with full civil and political privilege and this membership imply, reciprocally, a duty of allegiance on the part of the member and duty of protection on the part of the state. This legal relationship involves rights and obligations on the part of both the individual and the state itself. </li> <li> 4. Citizen A person having the title of citizenship. He is a member of democratic community who enjoys full civil and political rights and is accorded protection inside and outside the territory of the State. </li> <li> 5. WHAT IS THE DISTINCTION BETWEENCITIZENSHIP AND NATIONALITY 1. Citizenship is membership in a democratic or political community, whereas nationality is membership in any political community whether monarchial, autocratic or democratic; 2. Citizenship follows the exercise of civil and political rights whereas nationality does not necessarily carry with it the exercise of political rights; 3. A person can be a citizen of one country and a national of another. </li> <li> 6. How is the term National distinguished fromNationality? National is defined as a person who owes allegiance to and is entitled to the protection of a given state, regardless of the status under domestic law. Nationality is often times use synonymously with Citizenship. They are not exactly the same thing for the first has a broader meaning that the second. All persons are nationals, but not all are citizens of a state. Citizenship implies complete possession of civil and political rights in a body politics whereas the nationality does not necessarily confer these rights. </li> <li> 7. WHAT IS A SUBJECT? Usually implies membership in a monarchial society. A subject does not enjoy civil and political rights. </li> <li> 8. WHAT IS AN ALIEN? An alien is a citizen of a country who is residing in or passing through another country. He is particularly called foreigner. He is not given the full rights of citizenship but is entitled to receive protection as to his person and property. </li> <li> 9. WHAT ARE THE GENERAL WAYS OFACQUIRING CITIZENSHIP? 1. Involuntary Method 2. Voluntary Method </li> <li> 10. INVOLUNTARY WAYS OF ACQUIRINGCITIZENSHIP By birth Through the change of sovereignty which result in the acquisition by each individual of the ceded or acquired territory of the citizenship under the new sovereign in the absence of treaty stipulations to the contrary. Through direct legislative grant. </li> <li> 11. VOLUNTARY WAYS OF ACQUIRINGCITIZENSHIP Through marriage which result in the acquisition by the wife of the citizenship of the husband in case of difference in citizenship of the parties, except where the wife is barred from acquiring the citizenship of the husband by the law of the nation of the latter. Through the election which is the acquisition of citizenship after reaching the age of majority; Naturalization of the head of the family which result in the naturalization of the wife and the minor children living with him </li> <li> 12. WHAT ARE THE TWO PRINCIPLESGOVERNING CITIZENSHIP BY BIRTH? Jus Sanguines. Citizenship by virtue of blood relationship. The children follow the citizenship of the parents. This prevails in the Philippines. Jus soli. Citizenship by virtue of the place of birth. A person becomes a citizen of the state where he is born irrespective of the citizenship of the parents. This principle prevails in the United States. </li> <li> 13. WHO ARE THE CITIZENS OF THEPHILIPPINES? Section 1 provides that the following are deemed citizens of the Philippines : (1) Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution; (2) Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines ; (3) Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority; and (4) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law. </li> <li> 14. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT KINDS OFCITIZENS UNDER THE CONSTITUTION? Natural-born citizens Citizens at the time of the adoption of this Constitution Those who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of reason Those who are naturalized in accordance with law. </li> <li> 15. WHO ARE CONSIDERED AS NATURALBORN CITIZENS? Section 2 provides that Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3), Section 1 of Article 4 of the Philippine Constitution shall be deemed natural-born citizens. </li> <li> 16. WHAT IS NATURALIZATION? Naturalization is the legal act of adopting a foreigner into the political body of the state and clothing him with the rights and privileges of a citizen. It implies the renunciation of a former nationality and the fact of entrance to a similar relation towards a new body politic. A person may be naturalized either by complying with both the substantive and procedural requirements of a general naturalization law or he may be naturalized by a special act of the legislature. </li> <li> 17. WHAT ARE THE QUALIFICATIONS FORNATURALIZATION? Under the Naturalization Law, and as provided in Section 2, C.A. No. 573, as amended, the petitioner for naturalization is required to possess the following qualifications: 1. The petitioner must not be less than 21 years old on the date of the hearing of the petition. 2. The petitioner must have resided in the Philippines for ten years, which should be continuous. </li> <li> 18. 3. He must be of good moral character, and believes in the principles underlying the Philippine Constitution, and must have conducted himself in a proper and irreproachable manner during the entire period of his residence in the Philippines.4. The petitioner must own real estate in the Philippines worth not less than P5,000 in the Philippine currency, or must have some lucrative trade, profession, or lawful occupation.5. The petitioner must be able to speak and write English or Spanish and any one of the principal Philippine languages.6. The Petitioner must have enrolled his children of school age in any of the public schools recognized y the government where the Philippine history, government, and civics are taught or prescribed as part of the school curriculum during the entire period of the residence required of him, prior to the hearing of his petition for naturalization as citizen. </li> <li> 19. The residence requirement of ten years is reduced to five years under any of the following instances:1. The petitioner has honorably held office under the Government of the Philippines or under that of any political subdivisions.2. If the application has established a new industry or introduced a useful invention in the Philippines3. If the petitioner is married to female citizen of the Philippines.4. If the applicant had been a teacher in a public or recognized private school not established for the exclusive instruction of children of persons of a particular nationality or race in the Philippines for two years. </li> <li> 20. Section 3. Philippine citizenship may be lost orreacquired in the manner provided by law. HOW FILIPINO CITIZENSHIP MAY BE LOST? Filipino citizen may lose his citizenship in any of the following ways: 1. Voluntary A. By Naturalization in a foreign country B. By express renunciation of citizenship (expatriation) C. By subscribing to an oath of allegiance to support the constitution and law of foreign country D. By rendering service to or accepting commission in the armed forces of a foreign country The voluntary loss or renunciation of ones nationality is called EXPATRIATION </li> <li> 21. 2. InvoluntaryA. By cancellation of his certificate of naturalization by the courtB. By having been declared by competent authority a deserter of the Philippine armed forces in times of war. </li> <li> 22. WHAT ARE THE GROUNDS FOR REACQUIRING LOSTPHILIPPINE CITIZENSHIP? 1. By naturalization 2. By repatriation 3. By direct act of congress </li> <li> 23. RETENTION AND ACQUISITION OFCITIZENSHIP Under R.A. 9225 otherwise known as the Citizenship Retention and Re- acquisition Act of 2003 which was approved in August 29, 2003, natural born citizens of the Philippines who have lost their Philippine Citizenship by reason of naturalization as citizens of a foreign country are deemed to have reacquired Philippine citizenship upon taking an oath of allegiance to the Philippine Republic </li> <li> 24. R.A. 9225 otherwise known as the CitizenshipRetention and Re-acquisition Act of 2003 I ___________, solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines and obey the laws and legal orders promulgated by the duly constituted authorities of the Philippines; and I hereby declare that I recognize and accept the supreme authority of the Philippines and will maintain true faith and allegiance thereto; and that I impose this obligation upon myself without mental reservation or purpose of evasion. The natural-born citizens of the Philippines who, after the effectivity of the Act, become citizens of a foreign country shall retain their Philippine citizenship upon taking the aforesaid oath. </li> <li> 25. R.A. 9225 otherwise known as the Citizenship Retentionand Re-acquisition Act of 2003 DERIVATIVE CITIZENSHIP The unmarried child, whether legitimate, illegitimate or adopted, below 18 years of age, of those who reacquire Philippine citizenship upon effectivity of the Act shall be deemed citizens of the Philippines. </li> <li> 26. RETENTION AND ACQUISITION OF CITIZENSHIPCIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS AND LIABILITIESThose who shall retain or re-acquire Philippine citizenship under the Act shall enjoy full civil and political rights and be subject to all attendant liabilities and responsibilities under existing laws of the Philippines and the following conditions:1. Those intending to exercise their right of suffrage must meet the requirement under Section 1, Article V of the Philippine Constitution, RA 9189 otherwise known as The Overseas Absentee Voting Act of 2003 and other existing laws. </li> <li> 27. 2. Those seeking elective public office in the Philippines shall meet the qualification for holding such public office as required by the Constitution and existing laws and, at the time of the filing of the certificate of candidacy, make a personal and sworn renunciation of any and all foreign citizenship before any public officer authorized to administer oath;3. Those appointed to any public office shall subscribe and swear to an oath of allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines and its duly constituted authorities prior to their assumption of office. They must renounce their oath of allegiance to the foreign country where they took that oath;4. Those intending to practice their profession in the Philippines shall apply with the proper authority for a license or permit to engaged in such practic...</li></ul>