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  • 1.The Classic and Medieval West Chapter 15

2. Greece

  • Greek culture regarded humans as the highest creation in nature
  • They subscribed to a religion multiple deities
  • They invented democracy
  • They had sophisticated philosophers (Plato)
  • The goal of the artist was to create naturalistic yet ideal human figure

3. Greece

  • Stages in Greek history
    • Archaic period-influenced by Egypt and and the Near East

4. Euphronios Krater . c. 515 B.C.E. Height 18", diameter 21-3/4". Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 5. Euphronios Krater

  • In the Archaic red-figure style
  • Depicts a scene from HomersOdyssey
    • The Trojan warrior Sarpedon in carried off to eternity by the gods of sleep and death
  • Euphronios is the artist that created the piece
  • Krater refers to the handled shape of the vessel
    • Generally used for ceremonial beverages

6. Kouros . Statue of standing youth. Greek, Attic. c. 580 B.C.E. Height 76" (193 cm).Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 7. Kouros

  • Kouros is Greek for male youth
  • Kore is Greek for female youth
  • The archaic style is influenced by Egyptian art
  • The figure stands is a rigid position with arms by his sides and his left leg forward
  • This sculpture does differ from Egyptian art in it freestanding/in the round aspect as well as the fact that it does not represent a godlike ruler

8. Greece

  • Stages in Greek History
    • Classical period
      • 480-323 B.C.E.
      • Classical art emphasizes simplicity, order, and restrained emotion
      • An interest in anatomy leads to more naturalistic artwork with more relaxed poses
      • The Ideal human form was a major subject of Greek art in this period

9. Polykleitos of Argos.Spear Bearer( Doryphoros ). Roman copy of Greek original. c. 440 B.C.E. Height 6'6".Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 10. Spear Bearer

  • The artist, Polykleitos, wrote about the perfect proportions of the human form and created this sculpture as an example
  • By studying various models and working with the idea that the body is a set of harmonious ration, he created a mathematical guide for creating the perfect human body
  • Depicts an athlete who originally held a spear
  • It does not depict a particular individual, but rather an ideal human
  • He bears most of his weight on one leg, known ascontraposto
    • Contraposto means counterpoised
    • It gives a lifelike quality to the figure

11. Ictinus and Callicrates.Parthenon . Acropolis, Athens. View from the northwest. 448432 B.C.E. Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 12. Ictinus and Callicrates.Parthenon . Acropolis, Athens. View from the southwest. 448432 B.C.E. Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 13. The Parthenon

  • The largest of several buildings on the Acropolis
  • Was designed and built as a gift to Athena
  • Ictinus and Callicrates built the parthenon based on the Egyptian tradition of temple design
    • Post and beam construction
  • The axis of the building was carefully calculated so that on Athenas birthday the rising sun would shine through the east doorway
  • The proportions of the structure are based on harmonious ratios
  • None of the major lines in the structure are perfectly straight
    • Entasis, a very slight bulge, makes columns appear straighter

14. Ictinus and Callicrates.The Battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs . Metope from the Parthenon. c. 440 B.C.E. Height 67-3/4". Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 15. The Battle of the Lapiths and Centaurs

  • Surrounding the Pathenon, above the colonnade, are evenly spaced metopes
  • Metope-square panel
  • Depicts that war between the reasonable Lapiths and the warlike Centaurs
    • Represents Greek triumph, especially the triumph over the Persians

16. Venus de Medici( Medici Venus ). 3rd Century B.C.E. Height 5'. Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 17. Venus de Medici

  • During the latter part of the classical period, Greek sculpture took a turn away from serious idealism and turned to a more sensuous vision
  • Venus de Medici is a roman copy of the 4th century Greek original by Praxiteles
  • Represents the ideal female form

18. Greece

  • Stages in Greek history
    • Hellenistic
    • End of the 4th century
    • Coincided with the decline of Greek culture
    • Artwork was often created for non-Greek patrons
    • Hellenistic means Greek-like
    • Art became less idealized and more dynamic
      • More expressive and uses exaggerated movement

19. The Laocon Group . Roman copy of a 1st- or 2nd-century B.C.E. Greek original, perhaps after Agesander, Athenodorus, and Polydorus of Rhodes. c. 1st Century C.E. Height 95-1/4". Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 20. Laocoon

  • Roman copy of a Hellenistic work
  • Laocoon was a priest that warned against the Trojan horse and he and his sons were later attacked by snakes as a sign of the gods disapproval
  • Hierarchical proportion-Laocoon is shown as larger than his sons to show his importance
  • Notice the amount of emotion and movement as compared with earlier Greek sculpture

21. Rome

  • Became the major power by the 2nd century
  • The Romans were less idealistic and more practical than the Greeks
  • They admired and copied Greek works, but they did develop their own style as well

22. Unknown.Portrait Head of an Old Man . Italy. 25 B.C. 10 A.D. Height 34.9 17.7 24.7 cm (13-3/4" 6-15/16" 9-3/4"). Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 23. Portrait Head of an Old Man

  • High degree of individuality
  • Warts and all style stemmed from creating death masks and recreating them in marble
  • Great attention was paid to the flaws that make a person unique

24. The Colosseum . Rome. 7080 C.E. Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 25. The Colloseum

  • Built between 68 and 80 B.C.E.
  • Made of brick and stone
  • The exterior is a three story, round-arch, colonnade
  • Used for amusements such as gladiator games

26. Pantheon . Rome. View of the entrance. 118125 C.E. Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 27. Pantheon . Rome. Plan and Section. 118125 C.E. Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 28. Giovanni Paolo Panini.The Interior of the Pantheon, Rome . c. 1734. c. 1734. 1.280 .990 cm (50-1/2" 39"). Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 29. Pantheon

  • A major temple dedicated to all the gods
  • A immense domed space
  • It is essentially a cylinder with a dome with a single entrance
  • The walls are 20 feet thick with stone and concrete masonry
  • The dome is patterned withcoffers,recessed squares and was originally covered with gold

30. Early Christian and Byzantine Art

  • Romans first regarded Christianity as a strange cult and suppressed it
  • Many Christians hid their religion and art in their homes and catacombs
  • Early Christian art used Greco-Roman style painting of figures to tell the stories of the bible

31. Christ and the Apostles . Early Christian fresco.Catacomb of S. Domitilla, Rome, Italy. Mid-4th Century C.E. Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 32. Christ and Apostles

  • One point perspective and other devices used to represent 3D space were forgotten and not rediscovered until the Renaissance

33. Head of Constantine . c. 312 C.E. Height 8'. Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 34. Head of Constantine

  • Constantine moved the capital of the Roman empire to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople (now Istanbul)
  • Constantine was the first Christian emperor

35. Old St. Peter's Basilica . Rome. Reconstruction drawing. c. 320335. Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 36. Interior view of basilica of Old Saint Peter's. Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 37. Old St. Peter's Basilica . Rome. Plan. Copyright 2011, 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall Inc. 38. Old St. Peters Basilica

  • The Roman basilica was adapted for use in worship
  • Has a long central aisle called anave
  • The nave ended in anapse , a semicircular projection
  • The main focus of these buildings was