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Weeks 11-13

Weeks 11-13Germain Boffrand, Salon de la Princesse, Hotel de Soubise, Paris, begun 1732

Salons: name for the room as well as the events held in themThe center of social life in the home for aristocratsIntimate, fashionable intellectual gatheringsHosted on a daily basis by the womenSalon de la Princesse, in the Hotel de Soubise, Paris (Rococo)Setting for gatherings of the Parisian aristocracy in the years prior to the French Revolution

2Jean-Antoine Watteau, Pilgrimage to the Island of Cythera, 1717

Pilgrimage to the Island of Cythera (Rococo)An imaginary idyllic and sensual life of Rococo aristocratsMelancholic undertone hints at the fleeting quality of human happinessA dream world in which beautifully dressed couples conclude their days romantic trysts on Cythera, the island sacred to Venus (goddess of love, whose statue is on the right side of the painting)Watteau painted this as his official examination canvas for admission to membership in the Royal AcademyDidnt fall into any existing genre, so the fete galante genre was created to depict elegant outdoor entertainment3Jean-Honor Fragonard, The Swing, 1766

The Swing (Rococo)Clearly intended to be sensually explicitPretty young girl on a swing, being pushed by an elderly bishop obscured by the shadow of the bushes on the rightHer lover swoons in front of her, and pretends to cover his view with his hatSculpture of Cupid on the leftImage bursts with anticipation and desire but maintains a sense of humor4Sir Joshua Reynolds, Lady Sarah Bunbury sacrificing to the Graces, 1765

Reynolds: first president of the Royal AcademyArtists should follow the precedents set by classical artistsAll works should communicate universal truths, and avoid representations based on observationGrand manner: combination of Reynolds taste for history and his patrons desire for images of themselves through mythological portraitureLady Sarah Bunbury Sacrificing to the Graces (18th century England)Very large scale, with classical and historical elementsLady Sarah plays the part of a Roman priestess making a sacrifice to the Three Graces (personifications of female beauty)5John Zoffany, Academicians of the Royal Academy, 1771-2

Academies: French government founded them for the support and instruction of students in literature, painting, and sculptureHistory paintings: based on historical, mythological, or biblical narratives and generally conveying a high moral or intellectual ideaAcademicians of the Royal AcademyMembers of Londons Royal Academy of Arts are shown in this paintingShows only male artists setting up a life-drawing class, while two female Royal Academicians were included in portrait form on the right6Angelica Kauffmann, Cornelia Pointing to her Children as Treasures, c. 1785

Angelica KauffmanSwiss history painterOne of the greatest exponents of early neoclassicismOne of two women artists named among the founding members of the Royal AcademyCornelia Pointing to her Children as Treasures (Neoclassicism)The scene in the painting took place in the second century BCA woman visitor shows Cornelia her jewels and then asks to see Cornelias, at which point she points to her children, indicating that they are her most precious jewelsSevere and classical, but with warm, tranquil figuresMaternal dedication7Benjamin West, The Death of General Wolfe, 1770

Benjamin WestCompletely went away from neoclassicism in this paintingArgued that history painting was not dependent on dressing figures in Classical costumes, it could represent a contemporary subject as long as the grand themes and message remained intactThe Death of General Wolfe (modern history painting)Glorifies the British general James Wolfe, who died in 1759 in a British victory over the French for the control of Quebec during the Seven Years WarWolfe actually died at the base of a tree only surrounded by a couple peopleCelebrates the valor of the fallen hero, the loyalty of the British soldiers, and the justice of their causeIncludes a Native American warrior to indicate the North American settingPoses suggest lamentation over Christ, with the British flag replacing the cross8Thomas Gainsborough, Robert Andrews and Frances Carter (Mr. and Mrs. Andrews), c. 1748-50

Robert Andrews and Frances Carter (18th century England)Shows the wealthy young landowner and his wife posed on the grounds of their estate, with the Sudbury River and the hills of Suffolk in the backgroundThis painting wasnt completely finished, i.e. the pheasant in Mrs. Andrews lapSignificance lies in the natural pose of the couple, the depictions of their land and the pride they take in it, and the artists emphasis on nature as the source of bounty and beauty9Joseph Wright of Derby, An Experiment on a Bird in the Air-Pump, 1768

Joseph Wright of DerbySet up his studio during the first wave of the Industrial Revolution, so many of his patrons were self-made wealthy industrial entrepreneursSeries of entertaining scenes of scientific experimentsAn Experiment on a Bird in the Air-Pump (18th century England)Air-pump was a new innovationAir was pumped out of the glass vessel until the bird collapsed from lack of oxygen, and before it died, air was reintroduced through a mechanism at the topWright depicts the moment before air was reintroduced, one of drama and excitementThe surrounding people have differing responses to the experimentScience holds the potential for wonder, excitement, and discovery about matters of life and death10Richard Boyle, Lord Burlington, Chiswick House, Chiswick, 1724-9

Chiswick HouseExample of British neo-palladianismBuilding plan has bilateral symmetryCentral core is octagonal rather than round, and there are only two entrancesRoman temple frontTall, rectangular windows with triangular pediments11Giovanni Piranesi, View of the Pantheon, from The Antiquity of Rome, 1748

Veduta (view): a more naturalistic rendering of famous views and buildings, well-known tourist attractions, and local color in the form of tiny figures of the Venetian people and visiting tourists, often encompassed panoramic views of famous landmarksPiranesi produced a large series of vedute of ancient Roman monuments and ruins12Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, 1769-82, 1796-1809

Monticello (neoclassicism)Italian for little mountainJefferson based his design on the English Palladian style in his first building campaign (1769-82)Embarked on a second building campaign (1796-1809), enlarging the house and redesigning the exterior so that its two stories appeared as one large story, a manner then fashionable in Paris13Benjamin Latrobe, U.S. Capitol, c. 1808 (engraving by T. Sutherland, 1825)

US Capitol (neoclassical)A large dome over a temple front, flanked by two wings to accommodate the House of Representatives and the SenateLatrobe added a grand staircase and Corinthian colonnade The dome was gradually enlarged over time14Henry Flitcroft and Henry Hoare, The Park at Stourhead, Wiltshire, designed 1743, executed 1744-65

The Park at Stourhead (neoclassical, romantic)The grounds of Henry Hoares estatePicturesque: conception and views intentionally mimic the compositional devices of pictures by French landscape painter Claude LorrainDesigned to look natural and unkemptfolly: miniature version of the Roman Pantheon in the backgroundClassically inspired temples, statues, cottages, bridges15Horace Walpole, Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, 1749-76

Strawberry Hill (gothic revival)Remodeling of Walpoles country house into a gothic castleCrenellations: alternative high and lower sections along the top of a wallInterior redesigned according to Walpoles interpretation of the British historical past16Charles Barry and A. W. Pugin, Houses of Parliament, London, 1836-60

Houses of Parliament (gothic revival)After the Westminster Palace burnt down, the British government announced a competition for a new building to be designed in the English Perpendicular Gothic style, to harmonize with Westminster Abbey.Two rules of Gothic architecture: there should be no features about a building which are not necessary for convenience, construction, or propriety; all ornament should consist of the essential structure of the building17Richard Upjohn, Trinity Church, New York, 1839-46

Trinity Church (gothic revival)Quotes the early 14th century British gothic styleStained glass windows above the altar were among the earliest of their kind in the USAlmost every detail is rendered with historical accuracy except the vaults are plaster, not masonry18Anton Raphael Mengs, Parnassus, ceiling fresco in the Villa Albani, Rome, 1761

Parnassus (neoclassicism)Scene taken from classical mythologyMount Parnassus was where Apollo (god of music, poetry, and the arts) and the 9 muses residedApollo stands in the center, holding a lyre and olive branch to represent artistic accomplishmentAround him are the muses and their mother, Mnemosyne (memory)Figures arranged in a symmetrical, pyramidal pattern parallel to the picture plane19Antonio Canova, Pauline Borghese as Venus, 1808

Antonio CanovaLeading neoclassical sculptor in the late 18th and early 19th centuriesSpecialized in grand public sculptures for Europes leaders and erotic mythological subjects for private collectionsPauline Borghese as Venus (neoclassicism)Erotic mythological subject, commissioned by Emperor Napoleon of FranceDepicts Napoleons sister, who wished to be portrayed as VenusThe apple she holds suggests that she was the fairest of the three major goddessesWhite marble evokes the sensuality of Hellenistic sculpture20