ars2 priprava na ustni

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ARHITEKTURA RAUNALNIKIH SISTEMOV IIPriprava na ustni izpit 2008/09

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Table of Contents1 Zakaj vhod in izhod...........................................................................................................................4 2 Magnetni disk....................................................................................................................................4 2.1 Zgradba in format diska.............................................................................................................4 2.2 Dostop do podatkov...................................................................................................................5 2.3 Krmilnik diska...........................................................................................................................5 3 V/I krmilniki......................................................................................................................................6 4 Naslavljanje V/I naprav.....................................................................................................................6 4.1 Pomnilnisko preslikan V/I.........................................................................................................6 4.2 Loen V/I prostor.......................................................................................................................6 4.3 Posredno preko V/I procesorjev.................................................................................................7 5 Prenos V/I podatkov..........................................................................................................................7 5.1 Programski V/I...........................................................................................................................7 5.2 Programski V/I z uporabo prekinitev.........................................................................................7 5.3 DMA..........................................................................................................................................8 5.4 V/I procesorji.............................................................................................................................9 6 V/I procesorji..................................................................................................................................10 6.1 V/I procesorji pri IBM 370......................................................................................................10 6.1.1 Programiranje kanalov.....................................................................................................12 6.1.2 Aktiviranje kanalskega programa.....................................................................................13 6.2 V/I procesorji pri CDC Cyber 170...........................................................................................16 7 Prenosne poti...................................................................................................................................17 7.1 Osnovne vrste prenosov...........................................................................................................17 7.1.1 Sinhronski in asinhronski prenosi....................................................................................18 7.1.2 Eksplozijski in protokolski prenosi..................................................................................20 7.1.3 Izvorni sinhronski prenosi................................................................................................22 8 Osnovne lastnosti digitalnih vezij...................................................................................................24 8.1 Bipolarna tehnologija...............................................................................................................24 8.2 CMOS tehnologija...................................................................................................................25 8.3 Zakaj im manje napetosti......................................................................................................25 8.4 Slabosti TTL............................................................................................................................25 8.5 Odpornost proti sumu..............................................................................................................25 8.6 Vhodna obremenitev digitalnih vezij.......................................................................................25 8.7 Izhodi vrste tri-state in open collector.....................................................................................25 8.8 GTL..........................................................................................................................................26 9 Logina vezja...................................................................................................................................26 9.1 Kombinatorina vezja..............................................................................................................26 9.1.1 Multiplekserji in demultiplekserji....................................................................................26 9.1.2 Dekodirniki in kodirniki...................................................................................................26 9.2 Sekvencna vezja.......................................................................................................................26 9.2.1 Asinhronska sekvencna vezja...........................................................................................26 9.2.2 Sinhronska sekvencna vezja.............................................................................................26 10 Podajanje mikroprocesorjev..........................................................................................................27 10.1 Prekinitveni signali ...............................................................................................................28 10.1.1 Prekinitve pri 80486.......................................................................................................28 10.1.2 Motorola 68400 prekinitve.................................................................................................28 10.2 Prenosi pri 80486...................................................................................................................29 10.2.1 Bralni cikel.....................................................................................................................29 10.2.2 Pisalni cikel....................................................................................................................29 2

10.2.3 Eksplozijski cikel...........................................................................................................29 10.3 Pentium Pro - protokolski eksplozijski prenos......................................................................29 10.4 Quad Pump............................................................................................................................29 11 Bralni pomnilnik (ROM)...............................................................................................................30 Kako je shranjena informacija pri posameznih vrstah pomnilnika? .................................................30 11.2 EPROM..................................................................................................................................30 11.3 EEPROM...............................................................................................................................31 11.3.2 Kako delujeta EPROM in EEPROM? Podrobnosti, razlike?.........................................31 11.3.3 Kakna je razlika med "flash" EEPROM-om in "pravim" EEPROM-om?...................32 12 RAM..............................................................................................................................................33 12.1 SRAM....................................................................................................................................33 12.1.1 Razlika med SRAM in EEPROM .................................................................................33 12.2 DRAM...................................................................................................................................33 12.2.1 Page mode dostop .........................................................................................................35 12.2.2 Osvezevanje...................................................................................................................35 12.2.3 Kako vemo pri DRAM-u kdaj je podatek na razpolago?...............................................36 12.3 SDRAM.................................................................................................................................37 12.3.1 DDR SDRAM................................................................................................................38 12.3.2 Kako izvedemo navadne prenose (pri SDRAM-ih).......................................................38 12.3.3 DDR2 in DDR3..............................................................................................................39 12.3.4 Podajanje asovnih parametrov......................................................................................41 12.3.5 Standardizirane frekvence za DDR3..............................................................................41 12.3.6 Preslikava naslovov v pomnilnike lokacije pri DDR3.................................................41 12.3.7 Core i7............................................................................................................................42 13 Prikljuevanje pomnilnikih in drugih naprav..............................................................................42 13.1 Procesorji, ki ne uporabljajo protokolskega prenosa...........................

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