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  • 1.The Age of Genocide Exploring 20 thcentury genocides Jennifer Gigliotti-Labay

2. A crime without a name

  • The aggressor ... retaliates by the most frightful cruelties. As his Armies advance, whole districts are being exterminated. Scores of thousands - literally scores of thousands - of executions in cold blood are being perpetrated by the German Police-troops upon the Russian patriots who defend their native soil. Since the Mongol invasions of Europe in the Sixteenth Century,there has never been methodical, merciless butchery on such a scale, or approaching such a scale .
  • And this is but the beginning. Famine and pestilence have yet to follow in the bloody ruts of Hitler's tanks.
  • We are in the presence of a crime without a name.
  • -Winston Churchill describing the brutality of the Germanforces occupying Russia, 1941.

3. Genocide geno meaning race cide meaning killing The word genocide was coined in the midst of the Holocaust. 4. The 1948 U.N. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide defined genocide as Acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group 5. 20 thCentury Genocides

  • With the definition of genocide in mind,try to list as many 20 thcentury genocidesas you can.

6. Major genocides of the 20 thcentury

  • The Herero Genocide, Namibia , 1904-05 Death toll: 60,000 (3/4 of the population)
  • The Armenian Genocide, Ottoman Empire , 1915-23Death toll: Up to 1.5 million
  • The Ukrainian Famine,1932-1933 Death toll: 7 million
  • The Nanking Massacre,1937-1938
  • Death toll: 300,000 (50% of the pop)
  • The World War II Holocaust, Europe , 1942-45Death toll: 6 million Jews, and millions of others, including Poles, Roma, homosexuals, and the physically and mentally handicapped,
  • The Cambodian Genocide,1975-79Death toll: 2 million
  • The East Timor Genocide , 1975- 1999Death toll: 120,000 (20% of the population)
  • The Mayan Genocide, Guatemala,1981-83Death toll: Tens of thousands
  • Iraq, 1988
  • Death toll: 50-100,000
  • The Bosnian Genocide,1991-1995Death toll: 8,000
  • The Rwandan Genocide,1994Death toll: 800,000
  • The Darfur Genocide, Sudan,2003-presentDeath toll: debated. 100,000? 300,000? 500,000?

7. Namibia,1904-1905

  • Under German colonial rule, German Southwest Africa is modern day Namibia.
  • German Lieutenant-General Lothar von Trotha said,'I wipe out rebellious tribes with streams of blood and streams of money. Only following this cleansing can something new emerge'.
  • On October 2, 1904, von Trotha issued his order to exterminate the Herero from the region. 'All the Herero must leave the land. If they refuse, then I will force them to do it with the big guns. Any Herero found within German borders, with or without a gun, will be shot. No prisoners will be taken. This is my decision for the Herero people'.

8. The Armenian Genocide,1915

  • U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, Henry Morgenthau Sr., concluded a race murder was occurring. He cabled Washington and described the Turkish campaign:
  • Persecution of Armenians assuming unprecedented proportions.Reports from widely scattered districts indicatesystematic attempt to uproot peaceful Armenian populationsand through arbitrary arrests, terrible tortures, whose-sale expulsions and deportations from one end of the Empire to the other accompanied byfrequent instances of rape, pillage, and murder turning into massacre , to bring destruction and destitution on them.These measures are not in response to popular or fanatical demand but are purely arbitrary and directed from Constantinople in the name of military necessity, often in districts where no military operations are likely to take place there seems to be a systematic plan to crush the Armenian race.

The documentary,The Armenian Genocideaired on PBS in April, 2006. 9. The Armenian Controversy

  • To this day, the Turks deny that the Genocide occurred.
  • This is a VERY controversial issue to the Turks.
  • Turkey suspended its military ties with France in 2006 after the
  • French parliament's lower house adopted a bill that that would
  • have made it a crime to deny that the Armenian killings
  • constituted a genocide.
  • 23 countries acknowledge the event was genocide
  • In early October 2007, the U.S. Congress opened debate on
  • whether or not to declare the Armenian event a genocide much to the dismay of the Turkish government.

10. The Ukrainian Famine1932-1933

  • Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union, set in motion events designed to cause a famine in the Ukraine to destroy the people there seeking independence from his rule.
  • As a result, an estimated 7,000,000 persons perished in this farming area, known as the breadbasket of Europe, with the people deprived of the food they had grown with their own hands.

11. Nanking Massacre,1937-1938

  • In December of 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army marched into China's capital city of Nanking and proceeded to murder 300,000 out of 600,000 civilians and soldiers in the city.
  • The six weeks of carnage would become known as the Rape of Nanking and represented the single worst atrocity during the World War II era in either the European or Pacific theaters of war.

Two Japanese officers, Toshiaki Mukai and Tsuyoshi Noda competing to see who could kill (with a sword) one hundred people first. The bold headline reads, "'Incredible Record' (in theContest to) Cut Down 100 People Mukai 106 105 NodaBoth 2nd Lieutenants Go Into Extra Innings" 12. The Holocaust,1939-1945

  • The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic,state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jewsby the Nazi regime and its collaborators.
  • "Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire.
  • The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior, were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community.

13. Cambodia 1975-1979 The Killing Fields were a number of sites in Cambodia where large numbers of people were killed and buried by the Communist regime Khmer Rouge, which ruled the country from 1975-1979.One Khmer slogan ran: 'To spare you is no profit, to destroy you is no loss.' The massacres ended in 1979, when Communist Vietnam invaded the country and toppled the Khmer Rouge regime. 14. The East Timor Genocide1975-1999

  • The Indonesian invasion of East Timor in December 1975 set the
  • stage for the long, bloody, and disastrous occupation of the territory
  • that ended only after an international peacekeeping force was
  • introduced in 1999.

15. Guatemala The Mayan Genocide,1981-83

  • In the words of the 1999 UN-sponsored report on the civil war: 'The Army's perception of Mayan communities as natural allies of the guerrillas contributed to increasing and aggravating the human rights violations perpetrated against them, demonstrating anaggressive racist component of extreme cruelty that led to extermination en masse of defenseless Mayan communities,including children, women and the elderly, through methods whose cruelty has outraged the moral conscience of the civilized world.'

16. Iraq ,1988

  • The Anfal Campaignagainst the Kurds was a systematic
  • and deliberate murder of at least 50,000 and possibly as
  • many as 100,000 Kurds. It was theculmination of a long
  • term strategy to solve what the government saw as its
  • Kurdish problem .

Halabja(March 88) was one chapter of this campaign in which chemical weapons were used against this Kurdish Village. 17. Bosnia,1991-1995

  • Bosnia was part of the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire
  • until 1878 and then of the Austro-Hungarian
  • Empire until the First World War.
  • After the war it was united with other Slav
  • territories to form Yugoslavia, essentially ruled and
  • run by Serbs from the Serbian capital, Belgrade.
  • Yugoslavia disintegrated in June 1991
  • In 1992 in the Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina,
  • conflict between the three main ethnic groups,
  • the Serbs, Croats, and Muslims, resulted in
  • genocide committed by the Serbs against the
  • Muslims in Bosnia.

18. The Legacy of Mogadishu 1993

  • the most violent U.S. combat firefight since Vietnam
  • started out as an operation to capture warlord Mohammed Farah Aidid--turned into a firefight that lasted seventeen hours, left eighteen Americans dead, eighty four wounded and continues to haunt the U.S. military and American foreign policy
  • Its legacy , say many experts, was a continuing U.S. reluctance to be drawn into other trouble spots such as Bosnia, Rwanda and Haiti during the 1990s.

19. Rwanda 1994 800,000 Tutsis were murdered by Hutus in a 3 month period. The international community watched the event unfold and did nothing. 20.