Aristotle 384-322 The Master of those who know The Philosopher The Foal

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<ul><li><p>Aristotle384-322The Master of those who knowThe PhilosopherThe Foal</p></li><li><p>Pupil of Plato, Preceptor of Alexander150 books, 1/5 knownStagira367-347 Academy347 Atarneus343-335 Mieza335-322 LyceumChalcis</p></li><li><p>Plato used to call Aristotle the Foal. What did he mean by this name? Clearly it was known that foals kick their mothers when they have had enough milk.</p><p>Aelian, Varia Historica 4, 9</p></li><li><p>A naturalist, physicist, astronomer, philosopher, logician, theologian, moralist ...</p><p>[Gryllus, Protrepticus], RhetoricPrior AnalyticsPosterior AnalyticsHeavens, Meteorology 347-335 History of Animals, [Dissections]</p></li><li><p>More than a collection: A Philosophy of sciencesUnity and coherence of sciencesThe logic is a tool for knowing the worldSearch for causes (efficient, material, formal, final)OntologyEpistemology</p></li><li><p>Classifying"all science (dianoia) is either practical, poetical or theoretical" (Metaphysics 1025b25)By practical science, he means ethics and politics; by poetical science, he means the study of poetry and the other fine arts; by theoretical science, he means physics, mathematics and metaphysics.</p></li><li><p>The systemA treeTheoretical------- Practical-------ProductiveTheol., Ethics, PoliticsArt, RhetoricMaths,Natural Sciences</p><p>Met, Logic /Arithm, Geom./Biology, Botany, Chemistry</p></li><li><p>An orderIf logic (or "analytics") is regarded as a study preliminary to philosophy, the divisions of Aristotelian philosophy would consist of: (1) Logic; (2) Theoretical Philosophy, including Metaphysics, Physics, Mathematics, (3) Practical Philosophy and (4) Poetical Philosophy.</p></li><li><p>The path: logicInductive (inductive reasoning) : a type of reasoning which involves moving from a set of specific facts to a general conclusion.Deductivea type of argument where the truth of the conclusion is purported to follow necessarily or be a logical consequence of the premises </p></li><li><p>Ways to knowledge: logicAll propositions are simple or compounded of simples.Every proposition contains 2 terms, predicate and subject.Every prop. is either affirmative or negative.Every prop. is either universal or particular.Every prop. is assertoric, apodeitic or problematic.</p></li><li><p>A sullogismos is an argument in which, certain things being assumed, something different from the things assumed follows from necessity by the fact they hold.</p><p>Prior Analytics 1, 1 24b18</p></li><li><p>Posterior Analytics: Causes!We think we know a thing, when we think we know both the cause because of which the thing is (and know that this is its cause) and also that it is not possible for it to be otherwise.</p><p>1, 2 71b9</p></li><li><p>The Four CausesMaterial cause : the material out of which something is composed. It is not about action.The formal cause tells us what a thing is, (blueprint)The efficient cause immediately sets the thing in motion. The final cause or telos is the purpose or end that something is supposed to serve. </p></li><li><p>Logic, metaphysics, realityThe ten classes of predicatesFrom things classified to the things into which they are classified: ten categories10 classes or categories of things.The class of substances</p></li><li><p>Thus things are said in many ways to exist, but all with reference to one starting-point. For some are said to exist because they are substances, others because they are affections of substances, others because they are paths to substance or destructions or privations or qualities or producers or creators of substances or of things said to exist by reference to substance, or are negations of these or of substance.Met 4, 2, 1003a33</p></li><li><p>A thing is a substance if it is both an individual and a separable entity.</p><p>The rupture with Platonic Forms, but not the rejection: Logic and Observation supplant Mathematics and Dialectic.</p></li><li><p>Tradition, reputation, common sense enter philosophy...</p><p>Reliance on experience, observation, reports, witnesses, books...A collection, but within a system and with laws for thinking, describing, classifyingThe reconciliation between unity and diversity: the classificationThe discovery of the world, rather than the reminiscence of the lost knowledgeThe trust (reason, reality, knowledge)</p></li><li><p>Procedure of reliance on previous works for * all men by nature seek truth,</p><p> * nature would not have given a desire impossible to satisfy</p><p>* consequently, if men generally believe something, then that is a sign that it is more likely to be true than false.</p></li><li><p>In all cases of discovery, when work is taken over from others who have earlier laboured on the matter, gradual progress is later made by the hands of those who have taken it over, whereas what is discovered at the very beginning customarily makes but little advance at first. And yet this is far more useful than the later increase which depends upon it.</p><p>Sophistical Refutations, 34, 183b18</p></li><li><p>The father of tradition...We have given sufficient consideration to this subject in the Physics; nevertheless, let us also set down the views of those who have preceded us in the enquiry into existing things and in the philosophical investigation of reality; for it is plain that they too say that there are certain principles and causes.Metaphysics, 1, 3, 983 a 33</p></li><li><p>And this, as we proceed, will be useful to our present enquiry: for either we shall find some further kind of cause or else we shall be more firmly convinced about those we have just mentioned.</p></li><li><p>The joyful certainty of scienceAll animals have an innate capacity ot make discriminations, which is called perception and if perception is present in them, in some animals the percept is retained, and in others it is not.</p></li><li><p>Now for those in which it is not retained... there is no knowledge outside perception. But for some perceivers it is possible to hold the percept in their minds; and when many such things have come about there is a further difference, and some animals, from the retention of such things come to possess a general account, while others do not.</p></li><li><p>Thus from perception, comes memory as we call it; and from memory (when it occurs often in connection with the same thing) experience for memories that are many in number form a single experience; and from experience, or from the whole universal that has come to rest in the mind ... there comes a principle of skill and knowledge.Second Analytics, 2, 19 99b35</p></li><li><p>First let us consider the parts of men; for just as people test currency by referring it to the standard most familiar to them, so it is in other cases too and men are of necessity the sort of animal most familiar to us.</p><p>History of Animals, 1, 6, 491 a19</p></li><li><p>Now the parts of men are clear enough to perception; nevertheless, in order that we may not break the proper sequence, and in order that we may rely on reason as well as perception, we must describe their parts, first the organic parts, then the uniform parts. Now the chief parts into which the body as a whole divides are these: head, neck, torso, two arms, two legs.History of Animals, 1, 6, 491 a 19</p></li><li><p>The octopus uses its tentacles both as feet and as hands: it draws in the food with the two that are placed over its mouth; and the last of its tentacles, which is very pointed and the only one of them which is whitish and bifurcated at the tip () this it uses for copulation.History of Animals, 4, 1, 524 a3</p></li></ul>


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