Archives, Digital Archives and Encoded Archival Description Chris Prom Assistant University Archivist University of Illinois Mortenson Visiting Scholars

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Archives, Digital Archives and Encoded Archival Description Chris Prom Assistant University Archivist University of Illinois Mortenson Visiting Scholars Tech Training April 19, 2006 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Intro Overview of Archives, Arrangement and Description Review Standards and Tools related to Archival Description Review Standards and Tools for providing access to digital archival materials Lots of interaction </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Archives Background Archives: Organized non-current records; generated by institutions Manuscripts: non-current papers; generated by individuals or families Preserved because of enduring value Not necessarily permanent value Both generally referred to as collections </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> The Archival Mission Identify, preserve, make available records and papers From Gregory Hunter, Developing and Maintaining Practical Archives </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> LibrariesArchives Nature Published, discrete, make sense on own, multiple copies Unpublished, grouped with related items, make no sense on own Creator ManyOne parent organization Method of Creation Each created separatelyOrganically produced as part of normal business or life How Received Selected as itemsAppraised as groups How Arranged By subject classificationProvenance and original order (structure and function) How described By itemIn aggregate (record group, series, collection) Where described Built into item itself (provided title, author, CIP data), in catalog Prepared by archivist (e.g. supplied title) in finding aids, guides, inventories, databases How accessed Items circulateNo circulation Based on chart in Hunter, Developing... p. 7 </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Archival Appraisal 101 Process of determining value Done over aggregates not items Primary: operational, legal, fiscal, administrative Secondary: Historical or archival value Types of archival value Evidential: documents organization and functioning of organization Informational: sheds light on people, events, things aside from organization Credit: Hunter, p. 51 </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Archival Arrangement 101 Provenance Records from one creator must not be intermingled with those from another NOT by subject Original order Maintain records in order placed by creator Five levels of arrangement Repository Record group/subgroup (organizationally related group) Record series (set of files or documents maintained as a unit) File (folder, binder, packs for convenient use) Item (one document, letter, etc) </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Levels of Arrangement: Examples RepositoryUniversity ArchivesSpecial Collections Record GroupCollege of EngineeringChampaign County Republican Party SeriesDeans Office Correspondence Files Speakers Committee File File UnitFederal Aviation Administration Barry Goldwater, 1960-70 ItemLetter to FAA Director, June 12, 1968 Copy of remarks by Goldwater to CCRP, August 23, 1965 </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Arrangement of Papers The mixed repository model Term series in papers often refers to internal divisions in a collection. Thurgood Marshall Papers: The collection is arranged in five series: United States Court of Appeals File, 1957-1965, n.d. United States Solicitor General File, 1965-1967, n.d. Supreme Court File, 1967-1991, n.d. Miscellany, 1949-1963 Oversize, 1967, 1991Oversize, 1967, 1991 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Description of Archives Establish administrative control over archival materials Locate collections Identify their source, creators (chain of custody) Outline contents Establish intellectual control General nature of repository General contents of collection Detailed information on specific collections Summarize information across several collections Important for both authentication and access Internal vs. Public finding aids </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Principles of Description* Multilevel Description Proceed from general to specific Provide information relevent to the level of description Link each level of description to next higher unit of description Do not repeat information, provide it only at highest appropriate level * Summarized from ISAD(G) General International Standard Archival Description </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Finding Aid Basic Access Tool is the Finding Aid also known as inventory or register. Prefatory material Introduction Biographical sketch/agency history Scope and content note Series description (organization) Container Listing Index (less used now with electronic finding aids) </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Elements of Description 26 in ISAD (G) (www.ica.org/biblio/cds/isad_g_2e.pdf)www.ica.org/biblio/cds/isad_g_2e.pdf Identity Reference code, title, dates, level of description Context Name of creator, biographical or admin history, source of materials Content/Structure Scope/content, appraisal information, arrangement Conditions of Access/Use Allied Materials (copies, originals, related) Notes Description Control (author of description, revisions) </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Finding Aid Examples Reston Papers and Third Armored Division Assn (bring along) American Crystal Sugar Co. Thurgood Marshall Papers </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Questions? Next: Overview of standards and tools for description of paper and electronic materials, and tools for access to electronic collections. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Establishing a good descriptive system Takes planning, awareness of resources Deciding on platform or computers should be LAST step Better to describe all materials at high level than put all effort into one collection Beware tendency to do lower levels of description before higher levels Inventory MUST be the key Use a content standard </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Describing Archives: A Content Standard Provides rules/advice about the quality and structure of informational content 8 principles What to put in the 26 elements recommended by ISAD (G) Rules for describing creators and forms of names Complement to AACR2 Provides mapping to appropriate data structure standards </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> MARC21 Advantages: Can use regular library software, provides integrated access with non-archival materials Disadvantages: Can undermine provenance, relationship to other materials may be lost Recommendation: USE MARC Cataloging as first step in PUBLIC finding aids </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Cataloging Archival Materials </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> MARC 21 Sample </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Typical Fields for Cataloging Archival Materials Personal Name100 Corporate Name110 Title245a,b Inclusive Dates245f Physical Description (volume)300 Arrangement/Organization351 Biographical/Historical Note545 Scope/content note520 Restrictions on Access506 Terms of Use540 Provenance561 Subject added entry650s Personal name added entry700 Personal name as subject600 Corporate name as subject610 Link to finding aid or digital collection856 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Word-Processed Finding Aids Advantages: Easy to create, maintain Disadvantages: Not in standard format, cannot exchange with others, lack of coded fields Recommendation: Very useful for most institutions. Can be published to Internet via PDF </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Encoded Archival Description (EAD) Data structure standards for descriptions of manuscripts or archives--&gt;finding aids At any level of granularity Typically collection level sgml and xml versions of DTD tag for linking to archival surrogates </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> EAD Advantages: Best interoperability and data exchange, easier to implement with others (consortia) Disadvantages: Tool development still weak, steep learning curve. Recommendation: If you have good technical skills, and a basic archival program is in place, and resources are available, implement it </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> EAD Samples Static: http://web.library.uiuc.edu/ahx/ead/ua/1505023/1505023f.htmlhttp://web.library.uiuc.edu/ahx/ead/ua/1505023/1505023f.html http://www.amphilsoc.org/library/mole/e/edwards.htmhttp://www.amphilsoc.org/library/mole/e/edwards.htm Conversion on server: http://www.amphilsoc.org/library/mole/e/edwards.xml http://www.amphilsoc.org/library/mole/e/edwards.xml PDF: http://www.amphilsoc.org/library/mole/e/edwards.pdf http://www.amphilsoc.org/library/mole/e/edwards.pdf In digital library software: http://www.umich.edu/~bhl/EAD/index.htmlhttp://www.umich.edu/~bhl/EAD/index.html http://www.oac.cdlib.org/http://www.oac.cdlib.org/ Other implementations Cheshire: http://www.archiveshub.ac.uk/ http://www.archiveshub.ac.uk/ </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> EAD Structure 1 XML: perfect way to implement principles of multi-level description many elements optional most repeatable at any level, nesting can vary Normalization possible, but not common for most finding aids </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> EAD Structure 2 (information about EAD File) unique id (deprecated element, repeats info for display) (information about materials being described) </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Common Top-Level Elements (descriptive id) Other elements include,,,,,,,,,,,, Linking elements: some based on XLink spec, suite of linking elements includes,, All of above elements are repeatable for components of the collection, at any level in the (description of subordinate components) </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Description of Subordinate Components nested components (i.e. [unnumbered] or,, etc. [numbered]) represent intellectual structure of materials being described elements (within each level) represent physical arrangement Maximum depth of 12 levels (not a good idea to use all of them) All elements available in archdesc top level also available in any component (typically not used) </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> A raw EAD File http://web.library.uiuc.edu/ahx/ead/xml/2620016.xml </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> EAD Tools: Creation Current options Text editors (cheap, no built in validation, transformation or unicode support) Notetab Word Processors XML editors (graphical view, built in validation, transformation, unicode support, FOP; tend to be buggy) XML Spy oXygen XMetal (not recommended) EAD Cookbook highly recommended, templates for Notetab, oXygen </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> EAD Tools: Display Most common to transform to HTML Static via xsl stylesheet on command line or in authoring software, then upload files to server Client-side via link to css or xsl (dicey) Server side transform engine (saxon, msxml, xalan, etc) via servlets Dynamic (searchable) dlxs findaid class </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> XML Transformations XML XSLT2 HTML1 HTML2 HTML3 HTML4 PDF XSLT3 XSLT4 XSL-FO XSLT1 XSL PARSER </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Typical XSL file </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Collection Management Tools Advantages: Software tailored for Archives, easy data entry Disadvantages: Few options currently exist. May be difficult to migrate forward at a future point. Also not automatically online </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> CMT Examples Past Perfect http://www.museumsoftware.com/ http://www.museumsoftware.com/ Archivist Toolkit http://www.archiviststoolkit.org/ http://www.archiviststoolkit.org/ UIUC Archival Information System </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> AIS Demo www.chrisprom.com/ais/admin Login: guest Password: guest </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Break for Questions Next: Digital Archives Standards and Tools </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> LibrariesArchives Nature Published items, each item discrete, make sense on own, multiple copies Unpublished, grouped with related items, make no sense on own Creator Many differentOne parent organization Method of Creation Each created separatelyOrganically produced as part of normal business or life How Received Selected as itemsAppraised as groups How Arranged By subject classificationProvenance and original order (structure and function) How described By itemIn aggregate (record group, series, collection) Where described Built into item itself (provided title, author, CIP data), in catalog Prepared by archivist (e.g. supplied title) in finding aids, guides, inventories, databases How accessed Items circulateNo circulation Digital Libraries or Archives? </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> The on a horse problem Best systems mix archival and library approaches Complete item description AND Full context AND Link to complete collection (including description of off line items) </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Sample of Digital Library/Archive Projects http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html http://www.oac.cdlib.org/ http://www.ohiomemory.org/index.html http://www.library.yale.edu/mssa/ http://www.marquette.edu/library/MUDC/ http://www.library.uiuc.edu/archives/coll/dl/ bot/bot.htmlhttp://www.library.uiuc.edu/archives/coll/dl/ bot/bot.html </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Digital Library/Archive Standards Background on Metadata For images: Dublin Core For texts: TEI For information exchange: METS, OAI For Digital Preservation: OAIS Reference Model </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Archivists and Metadata Structured data about an information resource Metadata by itself doesnt do anything. Metadata schemas provide buckets for information about resources. Metadata needs to be interpreted by a system or user. Metadata provides context to help machines (and more importantly people) interpret content People usually talk about applying metadata to digital materials, but...... </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> This is Metadata These are metadata fields </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> same thing electronically Metadata Fields The metadata itself </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Now as xml metadata Descriptive and administrative </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> This is Not Metadata This is! </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Metadata is about context and relationships This is metadata, but... Incomplete Embedded in object Not self- explaining </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> More complete Not embedded Relational Not self-explaining </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Metadata and Code and human user beginning to do something with metadata But... Not self- explaining Cant be exchanged </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Non-embedded Self-explaining But relationships lost now as xml metadata </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Dublin Core Developed in 1995 for authors to describe own web resources Very simple, only 15 broad categories in the simple version Advantages: commonly held set of elements is easy to understand, built into many current tools Disadvantages: loss of specificity </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> The 15 elements: Content Coverage Description Title Type Relation Source Subject Audience Intellectual Prop Contributor Creator Publisher Rights Instantiation Date Format Identifier Language </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Dublin Core Resources http://dublincore.org/ http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/dcdot/ </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Text Encoding Initiative Encode any text wit...</li></ul>

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