architectural styles found in northeastern · pdf filetall paneled or corbelled chimney roof...

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    T he following is a guide to residential architectural styles found in North-eastern Ohio. It is important to remember that houses cannot be catego-rized like plants or birds, because buildings are a product of the prefer-ences and means of the builders. Stylistic labels are a way of looking at buildings, yet different ones have varying degrees of finish, from folk buildings that are suggestive of a style to full academic revivals. Much of Northeastern Ohio was built in a relatively short time-span of industrial expansion when mass-ing was dictated by narrow urban lots and few stylistic features were incorporated. Many turn-of-the-century buildings are really types, characterized by their shape and roof type (such as homesteads and American foursquares), but wear a few elements like porch posts and sash configuration from different stylistic peri-odsthus one might see several of the same basic house on a street with one wearing Tuscan porch posts and a Palladium window in the dormer, while another has battered posts and piers and exposed rafter tails of the Craftsman style. Some houses also represent transitional periods when fashion was evolving, such as late Queen Anne style houses that reflect the transition from Victorian to Colonial Re-vival features.

    Vernacular or Folk (to present) Characteristics often include:

    Simple Little stylistic detailing Typically gable-fronted or side-gabled

  • Classically Inspired

    Federal (1780-1820) Based on Roman prototypes; sometimes called Adam after the English designers, the Adam brothers. Characteristics often include:

    Smooth brick finish with fine joints Lintel-type window heads Low pitched roof Three-over-six or six-over six double-hung sash Doors often have fanlights or transom lights

  • Greek Revival (1820-1860/1905-1930) Characteristics often include:

    Low pitched roof Wide cornice line Prominent square or round porch columns Narrow side lights & rectangular transom lights at front door Elaborated door surrounds Six-over-six windows Small frieze band windows beneath cornice

    Romantic Revival Styles

    Gothic Revival (1830-1880) Characteristics often include:

    Steeply pitched roofs Elaborated vergeboards Pointed arches Board & batten siding

  • Italianate (1840-1880) Characteristics often include:

    Rectangular (almost square) Wide eaves usually supported by brackets

    (often paired) Low pitch hipped roof Cupola or belvedere Hood molds over windows Decorative frieze at cornice

    Second Empire (1860-1890) Characteristics often include:

    Mansard roof Bracketed cornice Paired windows Roof cresting Multi-colored and patterned slate tiles

  • Eastern Stick Style (1860-1890) Characteristics often include:

    Asymmetrical Decorative stick work (studs, knee braces, x-braces) Steeply pitched gable roof Towers and pointed dormers Vertical, horizontal, and diagonal boards applied over hori-

    zontal siding

    Queen Anne Style (1880-1890)

    Characteristics often include:

    Asymmetrical Variety of materials, textures, & colors Tall paneled or corbelled chimney Roof cresting Tower or turret Decorative upper sash Simplified classical columns (later versions) Palladian & oriel windows, Classical & Colonial Revival

    ornament (later versions)

    Romanesque Revival (1840-1900) Characteristics often include:

    Monochromatic brick or stone finish Arched corbel tables along eaves Arcades Wall buttress Battlemented parapet Oversized portico Palladian windows and fan lights

  • Colonial Revival (1880-1955)

    Characteristics often include:

    Typically symmetrical (not always) Hipped roof Cornice accented by dentils or modillions Multiple pane upper sash over single light (sometimes one over one)

    Dutch Colonial Revival (1900-1935) Characteristics often include:

    Gambrel roofs, occasionally with bell-cast eaves Multipaned upper sashes Roof dormers, sometimes large and extending width of house Lunette windows in gable ends Colonial-style elements, especially porticos

  • Early Twentieth Century Building Types & Styles

    A building type is characterized by its basic shape and massing and can wear decorative elements from different

    stylistic periods. Bungalows & Arts & Crafts Houses (1905-1930) Characteristics often include:

    Prominent porch Tapered porch posts or battered porch piers Knee braces Exposed rafter tails Shed dormer Multi-light upper sash or casement windows Bungalow form could have porch posts, etc of Colonial

    Revival or Prairie styles

    Homestead (1850-1930s) Characteristics often include:

    National or folk style One or two story Boxy shape Gabled or Temple-like front Porch across front Simple ornamentation with

    Greek Revival or Craftsman elements

  • American Foursquare (1905-1930)

    Characteristics often include:

    Two story Boxy, rectangular shape Hipped roof Broad, overhanging eaves One-story porch across facade Upper & lower body often clad in different

    materials Simple details taken from Arts & Crafts,

    Prairie, or Colonial Revival styles Prairie (1900-1920) Characteristics often include:

    Low-pitched hipped roof Overhanging eaves Brick or stucco finish Chimney at intersection of roof planes Continuous bands of windows Casement-type windows with leaded panes

  • Academic Eclectic

    Swiss Chalet Revival (1880-1920) Characteristics often include:

    Low-pitched front gabled roof with wide eaves supported by decorative brackets

    Patterned stickwork, exposed rafters and purlins Projecting porches or balconies with flat, cutout trim

    Oriental Eclectic (1875-1940) Characteristics may include:

    Overhanging eaves curled or flared at corners Ceramic or metal tile roofs Irimoya roofs

  • Georgian Revival (1895-present) Characteristics often include:

    Symmetrical Brick Hipped or gabled roof, large chimney Quoins and belt courses Dormer windows with Classical details Broken or segmental pediments Modillions, dentals, entablatures, and

    pilasters Multipaned windows with gauged

    brick or stone lintels Italian Renaissance (1840-1920) Characteristics may include:

    Symmetrical Stone, brick, or stucco finish Pedimented window heads Arcade Frieze and cornice Quoins, modillions, and dentils

  • Tudor Revival (1890-1940)

    Characteristics may include:

    Brick, stone, or stucco wall cladding (often used in combination) Steeply pitched roof Facade dominated by one or more cross gables Decorative half-timbering Tall, narrow windows with multiple lights (often diamond-

    shaped panes) Roofs with rounded corners designed to imitate thatch

    Beaux Arts (1885-1930) Characteristics may include:

    Faade symmetrical Masonry, typically smooth stone Flat or low-pitched hipped roof Quoins, pilasters, or columns Decorative garlands, patterns, or shields Accentuated, elaborate cornice lines Some examples have mansard roof with dormer windows

  • French Eclectic (1918-1945) Characteristics may include:

    Tall, steeply pitched hipped roof Eaves commonly fared Brick, Stone, or Stucco Decorative Half-timbering Balustraded porches and balconies Quoins at corners, windows, or doors

    Spanish Colonial Revival (1915-1940) Characteristics may include:

    Stone, brick, or stucco Red tiled roof Little or no roof overhang Enriched classical door surround Decorative vents Balconies with wood or iron railings,

    sometimes cantilevered Loggia or colonnade Elaborated chimney tops

  • Mission (1890-1920) Characteristics may include:

    Mission-shaped dormer or roof parapet Red tile roofs Quatrefoil window Arcaded entry porch Brick, stucco, or stone

    Modern Houses

    Art Deco (1925-1940) Characteristics often include:

    Stepped or set-back faade Zig zag decorative band Metal sash-type window Window spandrel Sunrise, chevron, and lozenge patterns

  • International (1920-1945; 1970-present) Characteristics may include:

    Smooth, unornamented wall surface Flat roof Asymmetrical faade Steel sash or glass block windows Steel pipe railing Curved faade

    Minimal Traditional (1935-1950) Characteristics may include:

    Wood, brick, stone, or mixed siding Fairly low-pitched roofs with little overhang Front facing gable Typically one or one and a half story Minimal detail

  • Cape Cod (1650-present) Characteristics may include:

    Square or rectangular shape One and one-half story Steep pitched roof Paneled door Small dormers

    Ranch (1940-1975) Characteristics may include:

    Sprawling, horizontal form Asymmetrical Low-pitched roofs Brick, clapboard, stone, or combination Ribbon or clerestory windows Three-part window with picture center Front or side facing garage No porch; modest entry Sliding doors and rear patios Minimal detail, typically Colonial

    Split-Level (1955-1975) Characteristics may include:

    Horizontal like ranch Low-pitched roof with overhang-

    ing eaves Two-story unit intercepted by

    one story wing Variety of wall cladding Front or side facing garage

  • Contemporary (1940-1980) Characteristics may include:

    One or two-story Flat roofed or gabled Overhanging eaves and exposed roof beams No traditional detailing

    Post Modern (1970-present) Characteristics may include:

    Whimsical shapes and colors Exa