ARCHAIC ERETRIA

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This book presents for the first time a history of Eretria during the Archaic Era, the citysmost notable period of political importance.Keith Walker examines all the major elements of the citys success. One of the keyfactors explored is Eretrias role as a pioneer coloniser in both the Levant and the Westits early Aegean island empire anticipates that of Athens by more than a century, andEretrian shipping and trade was similarly widespread.We are shown how the strength of the navy conferred thalassocratic status on the citybetween 506 and 490 BC, and that the importance of its rowers (Eretria means therowing city) probably explains the appearance of its democratic constitution. Walkerdates this to the last decade of the sixth century; given the presence of Athenian politicalexiles there, this may well have provided a model for the later reforms of Kleisthenes inAthens.Eretrias major, indeed dominant, role in the events of central Greece in the last half ofthe sixth century, and in the events of the Ionian Revolt to 490, is clearly demonstrated,and the tyranny of Diagoras (c. 538509), perhaps the golden age of the city, is fullyexamined.Full documentation of literary, epigraphic and archaeological sources (most of whichhave previously been inaccessible to an English-speaking audience) is provided, creatinga fascinating history and a valuable resource for the Greek historian.Keith Walker is a Research Associate in the Department of Classics

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<p>ARCHAIC ERETRIAThis book presents for the first time a history of Eretria during the Archaic Era, the citys most notable period of political importance. Keith Walker examines all the major elements of the citys success. One of the key factors explored is Eretrias role as a pioneer coloniser in both the Levant and the West its early Aegean island empire anticipates that of Athens by more than a century, and Eretrian shipping and trade was similarly widespread. We are shown how the strength of the navy conferred thalassocratic status on the city between 506 and 490 BC, and that the importance of its rowers (Eretria means the rowing city) probably explains the appearance of its democratic constitution. Walker dates this to the last decade of the sixth century; given the presence of Athenian political exiles there, this may well have provided a model for the later reforms of Kleisthenes in Athens. Eretrias major, indeed dominant, role in the events of central Greece in the last half of the sixth century, and in the events of the Ionian Revolt to 490, is clearly demonstrated, and the tyranny of Diagoras (c. 538509), perhaps the golden age of the city, is fully examined. Full documentation of literary, epigraphic and archaeological sources (most of which have previously been inaccessible to an English-speaking audience) is provided, creating a fascinating history and a valuable resource for the Greek historian. Keith Walker is a Research Associate in the Department of Classics, History and Religion at the University of New England, Armidale, Australia.</p> <p>ARCHAIC ERETRIAA political and social history from the earliest times to 490 BC</p> <p>Keith G.Walker</p> <p>LONDON AND NEW YORK</p> <p>First published 2004 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor &amp; Francis Group This edition published in the Taylor &amp; Francis e-Library, 2006. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor &amp; Francis or Routledges collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk. 2004 Keith G.Walker All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data A catalog record for this title has been requested ISBN 0-203-49108-4 Master e-book ISBN</p> <p>ISBN 0-203-57128-2 (Adobe e-Reader Format) ISBN 0-415-28552-6 (Print Edition)</p> <p>This work is dedicated with gratitude and love to Geoff Cooke amico socioque carissimo; without your patience, help and encouragement it could never have been completed</p> <p>CONTENTSList of illustrations Preface Documentation and conventions Acknowledgements 1 2 The geography of Euboia and the Eretrias Prehistory, mythology and cult: the earliest inhabitants of Euboia from the late Neolithic Age to the end of the Mycenaean Age Old Eretria (Lefkandi) during the Dark Ages and early Iron Age (c. 1050 to c. 750) Eretria from c. 825 to c. 650 Eretria: its history in the wider Greek world during the seventh and early sixth centuries Eretria: emergent great power of the mid-sixth century The tyranny of Diagoras (c. 538509) The Eretrian democracy (c. 509490) Eretria in the 490s Epilogue Chronological tables and notes Minoan notes The Kypselidai, Theognis and the low chronology The source of Strabos description of the Amarynthos stele (10, 1, 10, c. 448) Corinth in central Greece (519506) Bibliograhy vii x xii xiv 1</p> <p>27 72 89 139 178 201 228 260 277 279 282 284 286 289 291</p> <p>3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Appendix 1: Appendix 2: Appendix 3: Appendix 4: Appendix 5:</p> <p>Index locorum General index Index of authors</p> <p>315 322 344</p> <p>LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSMaps 1 Euboia 2 The Eretrias 3 The site of Lefkandi 4 Site location plan of Archaic Eretria 1 2 73 95</p> <p>Figures 1.1 The Euripos narrows and the old swing bridge at Khalkis 1.2 Hot springs erupting at the site of the ancient spa on the coast at Aidepsos 1.3 The ancient pass between Khalkis and Kerinthos 1.4 Cape Artemision and the Straits of Oreoi 1.5 The Throne of Hera at the summit of Mt Dirphys 1.6 Barley and vegetable crops on the Lelantine Plain near Myktas 1.7 The Kerinthos Plain near Mantoudhi 1.8 The dry bed of the River Lelas at Vasilikon in summer 1.9 View of Khalkis and the Euripos from the mainland 1.10 View of Karystos and its harbour from the Venetian castro on the slopes of Mt Okhe 1.11 The bed of the Boudoros in spring; leve banks protect against flashflooding 1.12 Flowering Cercis siliquastrum (Judas tree) against a background of fir and pine forests, central Euboia 1.13 Forests of fir (Abies alba and A. cephalonica) 1.14 Eretrian tetradachm c. 55011 BC, with gorgoneion and bulls/cows head, in the British Museum 1.15 Mt Olympos from the site of the gymnasion at Eretria 1.16 Rugged mountain and valley near Avlonari in the Eretrias 1.17 The Eretrian (Amarynthian) Plain from the southern slopes of the acropolis of Eretria 1.18 The acropolis of Dystos from the drained lake bed 1.19 The stone quarry on the north-east slope of the Eretrian acropolis 1.20 (a) The kalos inscription high on the cut face of the acropolis quarry:</p> <p>3 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 13 16 17 17 18 19 20</p> <p>(sixth century); (b) detail of the kalos inscription with the visible letters emphasised 2.1 The Xeropolis headland, Lefkandi, the site of the prehistoric settlement, from the west bay 2.2 The headland of Palaioekklisies, thought to be the site of prehistoric Amarynthos 3.1 Animal-style LH IIIC pyxis from Lefkandi, Eretria Museum 3.2 The Ship Vase (globular pyxis) 85025 BC from Lefkandi, Eretria Museum 3.3 Line drawing of the ship vase 3.4 The Centaur of Lefkandi, Eretria Museum 3.5 The MPG Archer Hydria from Lefkandi, Eretria Museum 3.6 View from Xeropolis Hill over the east bay, towards the acropolis of Eretria and Mt Olympos 4.1 The Eretrian Plainorchards and cropland on shallow limestone soils 4.2 The ashlar Hellenistic north-west acropolis wall tower 4.3 The acropolis from near the West Gate 4.4 View over Eretria from the acropolis hill showing the harbour, the city delta plain, etc. 4.5 The bridge at the West Gate 4.6 Fine-fitting archaic polygonal masonry at the West Gate 4.7 The channel of the western stream and the ashlar masonry of the western section of the enceint wall, which served also as a retaining wall 4.8 Polygonal masonry of the acropolis wall 4.9 The author at the site of the temenos of Apollo Daphnephoros 4.10 The temenos site 4.11 The small Thesmophoreion on the slopes of the acropolis 4.12 Bronze burial cauldrons from the heron site, Eretria Museum 4.13 Geometric burial amphora from the south-west cemetery, Eretria Museum 4.14 Burial amphoras from the south-west cemetery 6.1 The Laws of Eretria (IG XII 9, 1273/4) 6.2 The Laws of Eretria (IG XII 9, 1273/4) 7.1 View of mountainous country between Khalkis and Kerinthos 7.2 (Horn. Il. 2, 258) 7.3 The grave-marker of Khairion (IG XII 9, 296): . From Kourouniotis 1899, 144, no. 10. 7.4 Grave stele of Pleistias the Lakedaimonian (IG XII 9, 286):</p> <p>45 48 74 76 77 78 80 84 94 97 98 98 101 101 102 103 104 104 106 108 109 110 187 188 208 209</p> <p>213 220</p> <p>. From the Eretria Museum. 8.1 IG XII 9, 241: inscribed face, Eretria Museum 8.2 IG XII 9, 241: (a) line 37 showing the positions of the names (1) and (2) (or, I suggest, ); (b) close-up photograph of (1); (c) line 77, as it presently appears on the stone, where the second district name (2) [or (3)] occurs 8.3 The Horos Phratrikos, Eretria Museum 8.4 The proxeny decree for Aristoteles Kheiloniou (IG XII Suppl. 549), Eretria Museum 8.5 IG XII Suppl. 549 8.6 The base with the dedication of the Eretrian bull monument at Olympia 8.7 The dedicatory inscription: 8.8 The surviving horn and ear of the bronze bull</p> <p>233</p> <p>235 238 241 242 250 251 251</p> <p>Tables 4.1 Text with notes of the papyrus fragment of an early Elegaic poem 8.1 Comparative readings of IG XII 9, Suppl. 549 8.2 The known and hypothetical names of the tripartite territorial divisions of the Corinthia, the Eretrias and Attica 8.3 Comparison of the formulae of Attic proxeny decrees and the Eretrian decree IG XII 9, Suppl. 549 8.4 The readings of Peek and Wallace of IG XII, Suppl. 549 A1.1 From the Neolithic Age to the sub-Mycenaean period A1.2 From the sub-Mycenaean period to the sub-Geometric period A1.3 Euboian colonisation in the West A1.4 Some significant dates in Eretrian history</p> <p>136 233 240 244 257 279 279 280 280</p> <p>PREFACEFor the historian of early Greece, one of the most pressing tasks is the study in depth of specific [geographical] areas. J.N.Coldstream 1977, 19</p> <p>It is now sixty-one years since the only study in English of the history of Eretria was written. It was never published, and access to it has been practically impossible for students of Euboian history.1 Since then there have been a few monograph studies of other Euboian cities in English, but only one has appeared in published form.2 There have, of course, been a small number of journal articles on special topics dealing with Euboia but those who wish to pursue Euboian studies must turn to the more plentiful material in French and German, though even in these languages it is almost exclusively to be found in the journal literature. The Swiss scholar Denis Knoepfler has been the author of a massive amount of work on Eretria, especially its epigraphy and related topics. No researcher on Eretria can possibly ignore his contribution. The neglect of Euboia is hard to justify in view of the increasing body of evidence indicating that the Euboian cities played a significant role in the history of Greece, especially during the Archaic period. Their part in the so-called Second Colonial Movement to Italy and Sicily has long been acknowledged, but the results of the excavations at Lefkandi and at Eretria itself have demonstrated that Euboia had a flourishing civilisation that goes back to the tenth century and even earlier. The principal objective of this study is to exploit the considerable body of evidence embedded in the literary record, along with the results of archaeological investigations at and around Eretria, to argue that the city played a quasihegemonial role in the affairs of central Greece and the Aegean during the last half of the sixth century and probably even earlier, while also attempting a reconstruction of its constitutional and monumental antiquities. I shall suggest that some elements of the Kleisthenic democracy came to Athens via Eretria and that at least three successive regimes in Eretria [the pre-540s oligarchy; the tyranny of Diagoras (c. 538 to c. 510) and the democracy (509490)] directly and indirectly intervened in Athenian internal affairs to effect changes in the government there. A second objective is to bring before English-speaking scholars and other interested people the large volume of material on Euboian-related matters that has appeared in other languages, French, German, Italian and modern Greek, over the last half-century. The ancient literary evidence for Euboia is widely scattered among writers other than Herodotos and Thucydides, although these two, especially the former, do provide us with information. The seventh- and sixth-century poets, as well as Plato, Aristotle and Plutarch, the symposiac compiler Athenaios, the geographers, especially Strabo, and lexicographers are also important sources of evidence. Their details are often, in turn, derived from the works of earlier historians such as Ephoros of Kyme, Hellanikos and others whose works are largely lost. Perhaps our greatest losses have been: (1) the</p> <p>of Lysanias of MallosPlutarch preserves the content of a vital passage from this work which gives us an inkling of how differently the history of Greece in the late sixth and early fifth centuries might have appeared to us had it survived in toto; and (2) works of Arkhemakhos of Khalkis, Proxenos and some by Aristotle himself, whose series of Constitutions survive only in fragments, except for that of the Athenians. He is known to have written Constitutions for Khalkis, Corinth, Kerkyra and Keos, all of which would have been of direct interest to us, and, although there appears to be no specific ancient reference to it, there was undoubtedly also one for Eretria. Originally I had intended to include chapters on dialect, demes, the arts and architecture, coinage and (especially) cult. The limitations of length imposed on this book have unfortunately precluded them, though all these topics do emerge from time to time.</p> <p>Notes1 W.P.Wallace, The History of Eretria to 198 BC, unpubl. PhD thesis, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 1936a. This work is, apparently, not held in the library of the university, and I have only had access to it thanks to the generosity of his son, Dr Malcolm Wallace, who told me that he plans to deposit a copy in the Library of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. 2 D.W.Bradeen, A History of Chalkis to 338 BC, unpubl. PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 1947a; T.W.Jacobsen, Prehistoric Euboia, unpubl. PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 1964; R.G.Vedder, Ancient Euboea, Studies in the History of a Greek Island from the Earliest Times to 404 BC, unpubl. PhD thesis, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 1978. The exception to this sad record is S.C. Bakhuizens study, Chalcis-inEuboea: Iron and Chalcidians Abroad, Chalcidian Studies No. 3, Leiden, 1976.</p> <p>DOCUMENTATION AND CONVENTIONSThe general bibliography lists all works referred to in the book, along with a few that may be of interest to readers, with full publication details. Throughout, works are fully described (although without the publishing house) in the footnote of the first reference. Thereafter they are referred to by author, year of publication and page(s) thus: Knoepfler 1985b, 502. All dates are BC unless specifically indicated as AD (BC is omitted everywhere except in quotations, article titles, etc.). The abbreviations for the archaeological periods are standard and are related to those in the chronological tables in Appendix 1, which also outline the chronological framework adopted in this study. Abbreviations of journal titles generally follow the system used in Lanne philologique; the few exceptions are straightforward (e.g. TAPA rather than TAPhA). Other abbreviations used throughout the footnotes are: AR (the annual Archaeological Reports of the Journal of Hellenic Studies, London); ATL (B.D Meritt et at., The Athenian Tribute Lists, Princeton, NJ, vols I: 1939; II: 1949; III: 1950); CAH (the...</p>