Approaches in Studying Literature

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<p>Approaches in Studying Literature</p> <p>Approaches in Studying LiteratureA Short Guide</p> <p>The greatness of literature cannot be determined solely by literary standards; though we must remember that whether it is literature or not can be determined only by literary standards.</p> <p>T.S. Eliot</p> <p>2</p> <p>ARTISTRYINTELLECTUAL VALUESUGGESTIVENESS SPIRITUAL VALUEPERMANENCEUNIVERSALITYSTYLE</p> <p>1.ARTISTRY - this is a quality which appeals to our sense of beauty. 2.INTELLECTUAL VALUE - a literary work stimulates thought. It enriches our mental life by making us realize fundamental truths about life and human nature. 3.SUGGESTIVENESS - this is the quality associated w/the emotional power of literature. 4.SPIRITUAL VALUE - Literature elevates the spirit by bringing out moral values which make us better persons. 5.PERMANENCE - a great work of literature endures. 6.UNIVERSALITY - great literature is timeless and timely. 7.STYLE - this is the peculiar way in which a writer sees life, forms his ideas and expresses them.</p> <p>3</p> <p>No type of literature can be said to be literary if 4</p> <p>Typical analytical approaches</p> <p>psychologicalformalsociologicalarchetypalmoral</p> <p>Moral Approach</p> <p>Though we may read literature merely for pleasure, of entertainment or of aesthetic enjoyment, this reading never affects simply a sort of special sense: it affects us as entire human beings; it affects our moral and religious existence.T.S. Eliot</p> <p>MORALConcerned with the ends of literature as affecting Man as it takes its place in the human forum of ideas and attitudes.</p> <p>Judged only according to the moral code accepted by each generation, whether it lives according to that code or not.</p> <p>Our religion imposes our ethics, our judgment and criticism of ourselves, and our behavior towards our fellow men. </p> <p>The fiction that we read affects our behavior towards our fellow men, affects our patterns of ourselves.</p> <p>8</p> <p>Learning to Read</p> <p>What is the implication of the deer hunting man instead of man hunting deer?</p> <p>Why was Calvin called in for a teacher-parent conference?</p> <p>Psychological Approach</p> <p>The key to understanding psychoanalytic literary criticism is to recognize that literary criticism is about books and psychoanalysis is about minds. Therefore, the psychoanalytic critic can only talk about the minds associated with the book.</p> <p>Norman N. Holland</p> <p>Psychological</p> <p>It argues that literary texts, like dreams, express the secret unconscious desires and anxieties of the author, that a literary work is a manifestation of the author's own neuroses.</p> <p>It concentrates on the symbols, events, including the dialogues that affect the character. </p> <p>Follows reader-response criticism</p> <p>A Study of Three Minds</p> <p>Author - The relationship between author and his art.</p> <p>Character - Fictional characters are treated as patients.</p> <p>Audience - Reader-response.</p> <p>11</p> <p>Learning to Read</p> <p>Who is Edgar Allan Poe?Who is Jules Verne?</p> <p>If this comic strip is funny, did the background of the two characters contribute to its humor?</p> <p>Sociological Approach</p> <p>Art is not created in a vacuum; it is a work not simply of a person, but of an author fixed in time and space, answering to a community of which he is important.</p> <p>Wilbur Scott</p> <p>14</p> <p>SociologicalThe work of art must be placed in its social atmosphere and have that relationship defined.</p> <p>It must also be noted that literature is not only the effect of social causes, it is also the cause of social effects. Harry Levin</p> <p>The sociological critic is interested in understanding the social milieu and the extent to which and manner in which the artist responds to it.</p> <p>Learning to Read</p> <p>What kind of culture is being implied by these comic strips?</p> <p>How is the cultural issue tackled by the author?</p> <p>What implications does it have for the reader?</p> <p>Formalistic Approach</p> <p>Nothing can permanently please which does not contain in itself the reason why it is so, and not otherwise.Samuel Taylor Coleridge</p> <p>FormalisticAnalyzes the relation between what the work means and how it conveys its meaning.</p> <p>Good work is one that is interesting because it conveys meaning in an interesting way, an intriguing way to say the "same old thing."</p> <p>Allinformationessentialto theinterpretation of a workmustbefoundwithintheworkitself;there isnoneedtobringinoutsideinformationabout thehistory,politics,or societyofthetime of abouttheauthor'slife.</p> <p>Learning to Read</p> <p>What is the difference between each picture and of the words he say?</p> <p>Archetypal Approach</p> <p>There are universal patterns of man, whatever his time and place, which enabled the poet to make simultaneous parallels to and contrasts with figures and situations in the contemporary wasteland.T.S. Eliot</p> <p>Asserts the validity of myth and its retention in the social memory.</p> <p>Acts as a demonstration of some basic cultural pattern of great meaning and appeal to humanity in a work of art.</p> <p>It does necessarily not go back to specific myths; it may discover basic cultural patterns which assume a mythic quality in their permanence within a particular culture. </p> <p>Athena</p> <p>24</p> <p>Learning to Read</p> <p>What do these characters have in common?</p> <p>Try ThisMr. Brown was a well-respected Afro-American who frequents a local pub. But in his last visit, he was denied drink by the bartender, saying that since the change in new management, they are no longer entertaining colored people. Enraged by this explanation, Mr. Brown went wild and demanded to be served, calling the bartender by his first name. As for the bartender, he shook his head, clenched his fists, dialed for the police to take Mr. Brown away for his behavior and quit his job the next day.</p> <p>26</p> <p>Thats all, folks!Sometimes the only way to find out which approach is best is to find out the type of theme the literature tries to imply.</p> <p>28</p> <p>Athena</p> <p>32</p>


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