appendicular skeleton

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Appendicular Skeleton. The Lower Limbs. The Lower Limbs – Pelvic Girdle. Formed by the two coxal bones (a.k.a. ossa coxae ) that form the hip bones Coxal bones are attached to the sacrum to form the bony pelvis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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AppendicularSkeleton The Lower Limbs

The Lower Limbs Pelvic GirdleFormed by the two coxal bones (a.k.a. ossa coxae) that form the hip bonesCoxal bones are attached to the sacrum to form the bony pelvisThe bony pelvis holds the entire weight of the upper body and protects the organs of the lower abdomenThe pelvis is divided into two sectionsfalse pelvis and true pelvisFalse pelvis is area between wings of hipTrue pelvis is open space between the bones, anterior to sacrum and coccyxThe Lower Limbs Pelvic Girdle

The Lower Limbs Pelvic Girdle Each hip bone is made by the fusion of three bonesilium, ischium, and pubisIlium is the largest bone of the coxaConnects to the alae of the sacrumForm the superior, winged section of hip bone and the superior part of the acetabulumIliac crest is edge of the ilium that stretches from the anterior superior spine to the posterior superior spineThe Lower Limbs Pelvic Girdle

The Lower Limbs Pelvic GirdleThe ischium is also called the sitdown boneForms the most inferior part of the coxaIschial tuberosity is roughened area of most inferior point that receives the body weight when sittingIschial spine is a projection on the posterior side of the ischium, above the ischial tuberosityGreater sciatic notch is above the ischium, below the posterior inferior iliac spine that allows nerves and blood vessels to pass from the back of the pelvis to the thighThe Lower Limbs Pelvic Girdle

The Lower Limbs Pelvic Girdle The pubis is the most anterior part of the pelvisThe ramus of each pubic bone forms the anterior side of the obturator foramen (the ischial ramus forms the posterior), which allows blood vessels and nerves to pass into the anterior part of the thighThe pubic symphysis is the cartilaginous point of fusion for the pubic bones in the frontThe acetabulum is the socket formed by the three bones where the thigh bone articulates with the hipThe Lower Limbs Pelvic Girdle

The Lower Limbs Thigh Thigh consists of one bonethe femurthat is the heaviest, strongest bone in the bodyThe proximal end of the femur includes a head, neck, and trochantersThe head is rounded and fits deep into the acetabulum of the hipThe neck is the constricted part of bone just inferior/lateral to the headThe greater trochanter is a projection on the top of the bone for muscle attachmentThe less trochanter is a projection inferior to the neck that allows for muscle attachmentThe Lower Limbs Thigh The gluteal tuberosity is a ridge on the posterior that runs the length of the shaft and attaches to the gluteal musclesThe distal end of the femur includes the lateral and medial condyles, separated by the intercondylar notchThe Lower Limbs Thigh

The Lower Limbs Leg The leg consists of two bonesthe tibia and fibulaThe tibia and fibula are connected by an interosseous membraneThe tibia is also called the shinboneLarger, more medial bone of the legArticulates with femur at the medial and lateral condyles (separated by the intercondylar eminence)Tibial tuberosity is roughened surface on anterior side of tibia that serves as a point of attachment for the patellar ligamentAnterior crest runs the length of the anterior side of the tibiaMedial malleolus is process on distal, medial end of tibia that forms inner bulge of ankleThe Lower Limbs Leg The fibula is the smaller, lateral bone of the legDoes not articulate with the femurSticklike structure that forms joints with the tibia proximally and distallyLateral malleolus forms the outer part of the ankleThe Lower Limbs Leg

The Lower Limbs Foot Foot has three sections (like the hand) with the tarsals, metatarsals, and phalangesThere are 7 tarsal bones that form the inner ankle and the heel5 metatarsals form the sole of the foot14 phalanges form the toes; labeled proximal, middle, and distal like the fingersLigaments within the tarsals and metatarsals cause the arch of the foot (two longitudinal arches, 1 transverse arch)The Lower Limbs Foot