appendicular skeleton

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  • 1. Organization of the Skeleton
    • Axial Skeleton
  • Appendicular Skeleton

Axial Skeleton is the blue Appendicular Skeleton is the purple 2. The Appendicular Skeleton

  • The appendicular skeleton is composed of the:
  • pectoral girdle
  • upper extremities
  • pelvic girdle
  • lower extremities

3. The Pectoral Girdle

  • Also called the shoulder girdle , thepectoral girdlecontainsfour(4) bones.It functions toanchor and support the upper extremitiesand serves as an

importantattachment site for a great number of muscles that help to move the arm . The bones of the pectoral girdle are as follows: 4.

  • The Clavicles (2)
  • Also known as the collarbones , these act as anterior braces or struts, helping to prevent dislocations of the shoulder.

Bones of the Pectoral Girdle 5.

  • The Scapula(2)
  • Also known as the shoulder blades, these contain the shallow sockets into which the head of the humerus fits.

Bones of the Pectoral Girdle 6. The Upper Extremities

  • The upper extremities or upper appendages, and commonly, but inappropriately, called the arms, contain a total of sixty (60) bones from regions commonly called the upper arm, forearm, wrist, and hand.The bones of the upper extremities listed proximally to distally are as follows:

7. Bones of the Upper Extremities Humerus 8. Bones of the Upper Extremities Radius 9. Bones of the Upper Extremities Ulna 10. Reminder: A Comparison of the Radius to the Ulna always palm up, palmar orsupinatedperspective Thumb Pinkie Radius (on thumb side) Ulna (on pinkie side) 11. 5 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 5 6 7 8 Proximal row of carpals supinated (palmar) view; laterally to medially; or from below metacarpal 1 to metacarpal 5 Bones of the Upper Extremities 1 = Scaphoid 3 = Triangular 2 = Lunate 4 = Pisiform 12. 5 = Trapezium 6 = Trapezoid 7 = Capitate 8 = Hamate Distal row of carpals supinated (palmar) view; laterally to medially; or from below metacarpal 1 to metacarpal 5 5 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 5 6 7 8 Bones of the Upper Extremities 13. Bones of the Upper Extremities 1 2 3 4 5 Metacarpals 14. Naming the Metacarpals: ____________ metacarpalof the_________ hand . (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , or 5 th )(Left or Right) **Note:Counting for the metacarpals 1 stthrough 5 thgoes from thumb to pinkie. Reminder: 1 2 3 4 5 Metacarpals 15. Bones of the Upper Extremities P P M D D P M D P M D P M D 1 2 3 4 5 Phalanges 16. Naming the Phalanges: _______________ phalanxof the___________digitof the_________ hand . (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , or 5 th )(Left or Right) (proximal, middle, or distal) **Note:The 1 stdigit, or thumb, has only proximal & distal phalanges no middle. P P M D D P M D P M D P M D Reminder: 1 2 3 4 5 Proximal Middle Distal Phalanges 17. Summary of Upper Extremities

  • 4.Metacarpals(10) the palm and/or the back of the hand
  • 5.Phalanges(28) (singular = phalanx) the fingers
  • 1.Humerus(2) the upper arm
  • 2.Radius and Ulna(4) the forearm
  • 3.Carpals(16) the wrist
  • a.lunate
  • b.hamate
  • c.capitate
  • d.triangular
  • e.trapezium
  • f.trapazoid
  • g.scaphoid
  • h. pisiform

18. The Pelvic Girdle

  • Thepelvic girdle , also called the pelvis , functions tosupport and protect the soft, vital organs of the abdominal cavity ,provide a stable support for the trunk of the body , and toprovide attachments for the lower extremities(the legs). The bones of the pelvic girdle are as follows:

19.

  • The Coxal Bones or Ossa Coxae
  • Also commonly called the hipbones , the coxal bones each consist of three parts which become fused

Bones of the Pelvic Girdle in late adolescence to form a single bones. They articulate posteriorly with the sacrum and anteriorly to each other at the symphysis pubis joint. 20.

  • The three subparts of the coxal bone which fuse in late adolescence are as follow:
  • a. The Ilium
  • b. The Ischium
  • c. The Pubis

Bones of the Pelvic Girdle 21.

  • The Sacrum
  • Also a part of the vertebral column, it serves as aposterior anchor for the coxal bonesand asa solid, posterior wall for the pelvic girdle .

Bones of the Pelvic Girdle The Coccyx Also known as the tailbone . 22. The Lower Extremities

  • The lower extremities or lower appendages, and commonly, but inappropriately, called the legs, contain a total of sixty (60) bones from regions commonly called the thigh, shin, ankle, and foot.The bones of the lower extremities listed proximally to distally are as follows:

23. Anterior View Posterior View Bones of the Lower Extremities Femur 24. Patella (2) 25. Tibia Anterior View Posterior View Bones of the Lower Extremities 26. Fibula Anterior View Posterior View Bones of the Lower Extremities 27. Reminder : Comparison of the Tibia to the Fibula Right Leg Anterior View Tibia Fibula Lateral Medial Right Leg Posterior View Fibula Tibia Lateral Medial 28. 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Medial Lateral 1 = Calcaneus (heel bone) 3 = Navicular 2 = Talus (ankle bone) 4 = Medial Cuneiform 5 = Intermediate Cuneiform 6 = Lateral Cuneiform 7 = Cuboid Tarsals dorsal view; Rt. foot Bones of the Lower Extremities 29. Summary of Lower Extremities

  • 1.Femur(2) the thighbone
  • 2.Patella(2) the kneecap
  • 3.Tibia(2) the shinbone
  • 4.Fibula(2) the calf bone
  • 5.Tarsals(14)
  • a. Talus
  • b. Calcaneus
  • c. Navicular
  • d. Cuboid
  • e. Medial Cuneiform
  • f. Intermediate Cuneiform
  • g. Lateral Cuneiform
  • 6.Metatarsals(10) the instep or the top of the foot
  • 7.Phalanges(28) (singular = phalanx) the toes